The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

The Situation in Myanmar

The situation in Myanmar has escalated from oppression of the Rohingya people to the onset of a global humanitarian crisis and ethnic cleansing, with international officials calling for investigations for evidence of genocide. The Rohingya are a Muslim ethnic minority who live in the far western Rakhine state in Myanmar. Years of repression include previous and ongoing deprivation of citizenship by the military state, mass killings, gang rapes of women and children by military officials, and the burning of Rohingya villages. Accounts of families being burned alive by the military have also circulated. The government has long incorrectly classified the Rohingya as “Bengali” immigrants in an effort to justify the denial of citizenship and increasing their vulnerability to attack.

 

The Rohingya have formed a militia to combat systematic government oppression; however, such efforts have only further escalated the state’s efforts against them. The militia is gaining traction, both from Rohingya who see it as the only alternative to government repression, and from Muslim countries who regard the Rohingya situation as a sort of “Palestine of Southeast Asia.” However, harrowing reports have emerged which include details of the militia attacking and killing Rohingya who they fear to be “informants” and preventing men and boys from leaving the state, which complicates the international community’s response. Furthermore, with civil unrest comes greater concern about the potential for terrorism. There have already been signs of interest in the region from the Islamic State. There have been arrests of multiple men pledging allegiance to the Islamic State, and planning to bomb prominent sites across Jakarta, including the Myanmar embassy.

 

Hundreds of thousands Rohingya have fled Myanmar, with over a million displaced in the region. At border crossings, they face violence from Myanmar’s border guards and, if they pass, they must navigate miles of treacherous trails and flood-swollen streams. Dozens of women and children have been found dead, washed up on river banks. Many Rohingya, if they make it to a refugee camp, face severe dehydration and hunger, yet refugee camps lack enough food and medical help to provide much relief.

 

Myanmar has rejected allegations of widespread atrocities, asserting that its security forces were simply responding to attacks by Rohingya militants on police posts. The government claims Rohingya militants have torched their own homes in a bid for international sympathy. And the military maintains its current operations in Rakhine state are designed at rooting out “extremist terrorists.” Earlier this year, the UN set up a special commission to investigate another military operation that caused 85,000 Rohingya to flee to Bangladesh, but Myanmar’s government has barred the United Nations team from the country. Authorities have blocked access to affected areas, including humanitarian deliveries. Regardless, the commission has said that estimates of 10,000 deaths in the Rakhine campaign were conservative, and cited eyewitness accounts of mass killings, gang rapes of women and young girls, and the wholesale destruction of villages by the military.

 

The United Nations human rights chief, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, has previously condemned the army’s actions as ethnic cleansing and possibly genocide. In an open letter to Aung San Suu Kyi, a longtime leader of Burmese struggle against the military government, nearly a dozen of her fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureates stressed global action to save the Rohingya. The letter, signed by Desmond Tutu and Malala Yousafzai, among others, says, “Some international experts have warned of the potential for genocide. It has all the hallmarks of recent past tragedies: Rwanda, Darfur, Bosnia, Kosovo.” The Security Council must act, but it is up to its member states to determine how.

  • Katiesundeen
    Katiesundeen November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: United Kingdom
    Committee: UN Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in Myanmar
    Delegate: Katherine Sundeen
    School: Williamston High School

    The Rohingya people of Myanmar are facing what is regarded as the “Palestine of Southeast Asia” by many Muslim countries. As of 2017, more than 647,000 Rohingya people from Myanmar have fled their homes, and thousands have been killed on their way to Bangladesh, the closest border to their state. The Rohingya people make up about 1 million members of the Rakhine state in Myanmar. They are an ethnic group of mostly Muslim people and have lived there for generations. The situation has gotten rapidly worse and is now classified as a global humanitarian crisis and ethnic cleansing. The government of Myanmar is claiming that these people are illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and that they don’t belong in the country. Because of this, the government also does not recognize the Rohingya people as legitimate citizens and do not afford them the same rights as other citizens, such as healthcare, education, and other basic services. To combat this, the Rohingya people have started a militia, which has furthered the government’s negative response to them. As a response to this, the Islamic state has planned terrorist attacks, including bombing the Myanmar embassy in Jakarta. The situation is further complicated, as there are incidents of Rohingya men and boys being killed, or unallowed to leave the state, which affects the international community’s response. In short, the people that even make it out of Myanmar are suffering in the refugee camps (considering they survive until they get there), the international community is at a loss of how to respond, the Rohingya people are becoming more violent, and the government is attempting to cover up the severity of the situation.
    Most recently, the United Kingdom has requested a briefing from Marzuki Darusman, the chair of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar, on the mission’s report. The briefing was scheduled for October 24th and requested on October 16th. The mission was started by the Human Rights Committee to investigate the alleged human rights violations and abuses by security and military forces in Myanmar. Since the mission’s return in April, there have been numerous attempts by the United Kingdom (as well as some other countries) to keep the Council’s focus on this issue. The United Kingdom has also been in support of various resolutions in the Human Rights Council that reaffirm the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and support refugees and the Rohingya people as a whole, as well as various General Assembly resolutions that encourage the international community to support the government of Myanmar in their fulfillment of the aforementioned declaration.
    The United Kingdom, first and foremost, would like to start the session with this situation, as the severity of it could affect the world as we know it for many years to come. We expect to work with countries such as Côte D’Ivoire, France, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Sweden, and the United States, as these are the other countries that requested the most recent briefing. Another issue with the situation is accountability and the government of Myanmar’s efforts to conceal this situation, so the United Kingdom would be in favor of a resolution that addressed these issues. We also want to keep the momentum from recent events, such as the Fact-Finding Mission report, the creation of an independent mechanism by the Human Rights Council and the ongoing General Assembly negotiations around a resolution on Myanmar. The United Kingdom would ultimately like to see the government of Myanmar become more honest with the situation, and believes that the best way to go about this is passing a resolution on addressing the refugee camps in Bangladesh, the pledges to the Islamic State, the government’s abuses, and the militia being formed by the Rohingya people. Though the United Kingdom does not believe in much UN intervention, we believe that some may be necessary for this situation, as a way to support the Rohingya people in their attempts to be less violent. We see this as a way for the government and the people to have a less violent relationship.

  • Chenxia
    Chenxia November 13, 2018 Reply

    Committee: UNSC
    Topic: Myanmar
    Country: Sweden
    Delegate: Xiangyu Chen
    School: East Grand Rapids High School

    The refugee crisis in Myanmar has raised international concern and world leaders around the globe are condemning the Myanmar government for its actions and inability to fix this issue. The main concern right now is the refugees. Currently, more than 100,000 refugees have been confined in camps since 2012. According to the UNSC’s 8381st meeting, “freedom of movement is restricted and media is not allowed access”.

    Sweden has done many things to support the refugees. Late last year, Sweden’s foreign minister Margot Wallström talked with the leaders from both Bangladesh and Myanmar in efforts to find a solution for the ongoing hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Refugees crossing into Bangladesh each year. Wallström also noted that “Sweden is a major humanitarian donor to the Rohingya crisis.” The flexible funding from Sweden ensures the United Nations staff can deliver aid to refugees where it is needed. Finally, the Embassy of Sweden noted that “a long-standing development cooperation partner with Bangladesh,” Sweden “actively promote synergies between relief and development,” supporting development plans that will make the refugee’s lives easier in refugee camps.

    Thus far, the UNSC has made many efforts to relieve the Rohingya crisis. A fact-finding mission was sent out in March of 2017 to investigate reports of human rights violation committed by the Myanmar army against the Rohingya Muslim minority. As shown in meeting records, in November later that year, the Security Council “unanimously adopted a presidential statement, setting out a roadmap to address the crisis”. In April earlier this year, the council for the first time visited Bangladesh and Myanmar to ensure the implementation of the roadmap. BBC News emphasized in their Myanmar timeline article that in August, with the results of several fact-finding missions in hand, the UN accused “Myanmar’s military leaders of carrying out genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity against Rohingya Muslims, calling for six generals to face trial at the International Criminal Court. [The UN] also [accused] Aung San Suu Kyi of failing to prevent the violence. Myanmar rejects the findings”.

    Sweden believes in the purpose and necessity of fact-finding missions. In order to act accordingly, the Security Council needs solid and trustworthy evidence, and Sweden firmly believes in the credibility of fact-finding missions. Sweden also believes that the actions the Security Council has taken in this issue are too little and too late. To live up to the council’s “responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security”, more actions must be taken to resolve this terrible humanitarian crisis. Sweden believes in four main goals moving forward. First, the UN and its partners must be allowed full access into Myanmar and all affected areas. Second, new negotiations must be made with the Myanmar government to ensure that those who have fled can return to their place of origin to rebuild their lives without fear. Third, the Refugee camps need constant and additional support. More funding is needed, and additional protection must be put in place especially for those that have been the victims of inhumane crimes. Finally, peace between ARSA and the Myanmar Government must be reached. To do so, Sweden believes that the Myanmar Government must be able to address and include all ethnic minorities moving forward. A first step is to negotiate with the Myanmar Government to release the two journalists that had been reporting on Rohingya Massacres who recently was imprisoned on the grounds for, according to The Guardian, “breaching the country’s Official Secrets Act”. After the goals have been achieved, Sweden believes that those who committed the crimes should be held responsible, and evidence from past and future fact-finding missions will be crucial in identifying the responsible parties or individuals.

  • Charliej1221
    Charliej1221 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: UN Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in Myanmar
    Country: Côte d’Ivoire
    Delegate: Charlotte Howald
    School: Saginaw Arts and Sciences Academy

    The Situation in Myanmar consists of the ongoing conflicts in the Kachin and Shan States, as well as the extreme violence in the Rakhine State against the Rohingya Muslims. This issue is by no means new. The Rohingya people have always been considered illegal immigrants treated as “stateless people” by the country of Myanmar, and have long since been victims to “systematic discrimination.” Multiple rights have been stripped from the population, such as access to medical assistance, freedom of movement, and education. This ongoing crisis arose to violence on the 25th of August last year and continues to worsen with attacks from both the Buddhist militia and the militia created by the Rohingya people, such as the act of burning houses. The actions shown by the Buddhist militia (rape, destruction, and killings) has led to the death of at least 1,000 Rohingya people. More than 700,000 refugees have fled to the neighboring country of Bangladesh, north of the Rakhine state. Recently, a repatriation has been called upon the country of Bangladesh, to return the refugees back to their home country of Myanmar. The UN has recognized that the unsuitable conditions are still prominent and are in no way safe for the refugees to return.

    Côte d’Ivoire is deeply unsettled at the crisis further developing within Myanmar and the increase in violence over the past year, particularly because it shows similarities to a situation within its own Ivorian population in 2010 concerning a political election. Violence had emerged from absent election results leading the country into a Second Ivorian Civil War, with months of disorder and the death of hundreds of citizens. In the first Ivorian Civil War, the UN stepped in and created United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) which continued to establish peace within the country seven years later. The crisis concluded with the intervention of the United Nations and with compliance from both the government of Côte d’Ivoire and the UNOCI. The same situation can be reflected here. An ending to the crisis will be set into motion only when the government of Myanmar works with the UN to create a sustainable long-term solution.

    Cote d’Ivoire believes that this topic should be considered first in the committee’s agenda as it has persisted past necessity. The top priority should be reflected in securing the cooperation of Myanmar’s government and establishing a final solution guaranteed to liberate the Rohingya population of the injustice they have suffered, as well as ensure that all refugees consensually return to a secure home. Cote d’Ivoire looks forward to working with France, Kuwait, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Sweden, The United States, and the United Kingdom (as they coordinated the prior session concerning the topic of Myanmar.) In order to achieve international peace and security, all nations of the Security Council must work together to create solutions and resolutions with the world’s best intentions in mind.

  • Vipuladu
    Vipuladu November 14, 2018 Reply

    Security Council
    The Situation in Myanmar
    Republic of Equatorial Guinea
    Vipul Adusumilli

    The situation of the Rohingya people in Myanmar is alarming. According to recent statistics, 680,000 Rohingyas are refugees in Bangladesh and some 176,000 Rohingya suffer from severe food insecurity. Myanmar, roughly 88% buddhist, has been persecuting the Rohingya, a muslim ethnic group, unfairly. The United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly called on the Burmese Military Junta to respect human rights and in November 2009 the General Assembly adopted a resolution “strongly condemning the ongoing systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms” and calling on the Burmese Military Regime “to take urgent measures to put an end to violations of international human rights and humanitarian law.” The Rohingyas have been dying at refugee camps due to lack of food, water, and sanitation.

    The Republic of Equatorial Guinea has expressed real concern about the delicate humanitarian situation of the Rohingya people due to the excessive use of military force against the State of Rakhine, which has caused a conflict that the Permanent Representative of Equatorial Guinea has defined as “humanitarian crisis”. Equatorial Guinea has highlighted poverty as an “important source of instability and conflict” and has called on Myanmar authorities to look for active ways to find an “immediate” solution to the crisis faced by the population of Rohingya origin.
    We have also called for “peaceful coexistence among all ethnic and religious communities in the Rakhine State” and have valued the need to intensify and promote activities that prevent the progression of violence, restore law and order throughout the country, create favorable socio-economic conditions and solve the refugee problem.

    Equatorial Guinea has supported efforts to promote interreligious interaction in this country that involves spiritual leaders of all religions and has called for “constructive dialogue at all levels”, convinced that, with the support and assistance of the international community, Bangladesh and Myanmar will be able to continue to improve the situation and find ways to solve the problem through peaceful negotiation. Equatorial Guinea would also like to urge nations to assist the Rohingya people in humanitarian aid by setting up or donating to refugee camps, as they currently lack resources.

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    Jake Wilcox November 14, 2018 Reply

    11-11-18
    Submitted To: United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
    From: The Republic of Kazakhstan
    Topic: The Situation in Myanmar
    Delegate: Jake Wilcox
    The Republic of Kazakhstan is deeply concerned about the appalling reports of oppression and violence coming out of Myanmar. The refugee crisis being caused by the Myanmar government is unacceptable and we must find a way to bring about a end to the violence occuring. We must do more thought to help provide humanitarian aid to the over 700,000 Rohingya refugees from this crisis. Kazakhstan has already given over a half million dollars in aid to these refugees and more aid must happen.
    Any resolution we pass must hit these four criteria. Firstly, we must find a more effective way to ensure that all of the refugees are taken care of well we resolve this crisis. Secondly, we must find a effective way to stop the current persecution from taking place. Whether that take the form of peacekeeper intervention, sanctions or some other method to stop the crisis at hand. Thirdly, we must find a process of which to assimilate the Rohingya refugees back into their homes and villages in Myanmar in the long term. Finally, we must ensure peace during assimilation and after throughout the region to ensure that this crisis does not happen again. Overall we must find a comprehensive and effective solution that meets these criteria.
    The Republic of Kazakhstan looks forward to working with the UN Security Council in order to bring about a end to the crisis at hand. The Republic of Kazakhstan believes that we must set up more/expand the fact finding mission in Myanmar. Kazakhstan believes that this will help us establish who is directly responsible, for possible further action against, and the mission will help us find further the best method for helping the Rohingya people is. Overall the Republic of Kazakhstan looks forward to finally bringing a end to this crisis through security council action for the good of the Rohingya as well as to help bring order back to the region.

  • Lauralynch
    Lauralynch November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: UNSC
    Topic: The Situation in Myanmar
    Country: Ethiopia
    Delegate: Laura Lynch
    School: Royal Oak High School

    The situation in Myanmar is deep-rooted, historically the domino effect of a multitude of imbedded societal issues. The build up of these problems in combination with a government that’s embarked on the rocky road to democracy together have combusted, resulting in the violence between the Myanmense government and ethnic-based militant groups that has caused severe harm and a widespread exodus of the country’s civilian population. The violence and actions perpetrated by the government is condemnable, and the humanitarian aid problem that has come from it certainly alarming. However, this situation is not without hope. Ethiopia strongly believes that through reconciliation and structure, the Rohingya people can be repatriated and the long-standing wounds will begin the path to healing
    Deeply concerned by the information and reports released by the UNHRC investigation, Ethiopia stresses the importance of development regarding humanitarian aid solutions toward the extensive refugee problem, as well as in providing accountability measures to protect the future of Myanmanese citizens. However, we recognize the need for additional, alternative fact-finding missions to take place in order for real progress and acceptance of the Security Council’s decisions to occur. The government of Myanmar has expressed discontentment with the administration that delivered the current fact-finding mission, and with the assumption that we are working off of that basis will not only grow international tension, but assure that our work in committee is devalued. This leaves us in turn with a large matter to discuss: What would the administer of this fact-finding mission look like, and how could we ensure it meets the needs of both the council members as well as Myanmar itself in order to enable true progress?
    Ethiopia still firmly supports the final report of the advisory commission on the Rakhine State, but recognizes the need for an expedited integration of these solutions. Ethiopia additionally commends and stands behind China’s three-step approach to the conflict, introduced to the council through letter S/2018/880, but would like to discuss ways in committee to make its implementation more sustainable and effective in the long-term. In order to solve these problems, the nation of Ethiopia proposes the composition of a timeline for progress within Myanmar. This timeline would consist of dependencies established by the council, ensuring accountability and providing the UN an accurate measure of the progress occuring. The specific dependencies and benefits reaped from each goal can be thoroughly discussed and determined during committee.
    The nation of Ethiopia believes that progress should be made through diplomatic action rather than sanctions or intervention so that more tension isn’t added to the region, and so that socioeconomic conditions, the re-establishment of law and order, and a gradual resolving of the refugee problem can occur. Additionally, economic isolation only furthers the problem of inaccessibility in terms of humanitarian aid. In order to de-escalate the situation in Myanmar and reduce the humanitarian crisis, we as a council must continue to address the roots of this conflict in themselves, designing a comprehensive strategy aimed at the addressment of reconciliation, peace, stability and development within the state. A large factor in this conflict is the government’s path to democracy and the instability that has grown out of the transition. In order to achieve long-term reconciliation within Myanmar, we as a body must provide direction and aid in terms of stabilization. The actual direction and content of this action must be discussed and agreed upon during committee.
    In terms of the refugee crisis that has arisen, Ethiopia urges all member states to continue providing full support the efforts of Bangladesh, but recognizes the need for a greater level of both financial and logistical support. Ethiopia strongly supports the Memorandum of understanding forged between the UNDP, UNHRC, and Myanmar, but knows more discussion in committee will have to occur in order to establish more steady solutions on aid toward refugees. The nation of Ethiopia recognizes that without measures in place to ensure the cooperation and implementation of such recommendations the future is left to uncertainty. Ultimately, this issue boils down to accountability in terms of healing and step toward reconciliation, not finger-pointing. Keeping this in mind, we strongly believe that ensuring accountability is vital, and something that can only be done through an independent and transparent verification method. This method would work to ensure progress on established steps toward progress, as well as it would verify the safety of the conditions within Myanmar in order to provide the refugees a safe and consensual return during the process of mutual reparitration. This raises an important point of committee discussion: What would an independent and transparent verification method look like, and how could it be structured as to be acceptable by both the members on this council as well as Myanmar?
    In our time we must work on comprehensive, long-term solutions that are agreed upon with unity in order to work effectively. Ultimately in order for national reconciliation and healing to occur within Myanmar, two things that are essential to re-establishing peace and security, we must work to provide future-focused solutions to ensure a protection of the Rakhine state and the Myanmanese as a whole, solidifying this situation won’t be repeated. The delegation of Ethiopia looks forward to working with the council to forge long-standing, sustainable solutions for the citizens of Myanmar and their government as a whole.

  • Riley.t.wilson
    Riley.t.wilson November 14, 2018 Reply

    Riley Wilson
    Peru
    UNSC
    Grand Rapids City

    To quote the United Nations Human Rights Council’s fact-finding mission that took place in accordance with resolution 34/22 submitted in September of this year, “The gross human rights violations and abuses committed in Kachin, Rakhine and Shan States are shocking for their horrifying nature and ubiquity. Many of these violations undoubtedly amount to the gravest crimes under international law”. The situation in Myanmar has time after time again shown to be one of the most concerning examples of human rights violations in the world, with forced deportation creating a refugee crisis and the people who remain in the country are victims of shocking human rights abuse.

    The United Nations has for too long operated in the dark. Myanmar has been reluctant to say the least in allowing the United Nations to investigate the crisis, shutting off the borders and refusing investigation. The UNHR’s fact-finding mission is the first major investigation by the UN, and should be the basis of the discussions we have over the topic, as they effectively outline many of the abuses taking place in the nation. That is not to say that this should be our only investigation, in fact Peru has advocated and will continue to advocate on the Security Council that more investigations into what is really happening in the country should take place. This needs to occur at any cost, we can not allow the oppressive Myanmar regime to push this council around. As it pertains to actual action on the issue, it is the belief that nations need to work to welcome those forced out of the country into their own. Allowing these persecuted people to exist without a nation is unacceptable, and needs to be part of any resolution passed. Assistance could be given through the use of NGOs (non-governmental organizations). Lastly, an unwavering condemnation of the atrocities carried out by the Myanmar government needs to be at the top of any and all resolutions. Should there by heavy resistance by Myanmar to these actions, or retaliation against the Rohingya, swift and aggressive action needs to take place by the United Nation.

    The crimes committed in Myanmar against the Rohingya people need to be stopped, but they can not be stopped until they are fully understood. The UNHR’s investigation is a start, but more fact-finding needs to take place by the United Nations. That is not to say that sufficient information to take action is not already known. Peru believes that this council already knows enough to provide relief, condemn the nation, and work to provide aid in the region, but also requires more specific information such as regions most affected by the violations. Peru hopes we can address this situation and work to end the crisis.

  • Calvinwatry
    Calvinwatry November 14, 2018 Reply

    The Kingdom of the Netherlands
    UNSC
    The Situation in Myanmar
    Calvin Watry, The Roeper School

    The Netherlands recognizes the situation in Myanmar as atrocities and as ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya people. The Myanmar government refuses to acknowledge the violence done to the Rohingya. Action must be taken to prevent further death and violence from happening. The Netherlands recognizes that the government of Myanmar does not want humanitarian aid to reach the people who have suffered by these terrible acts of violence, however, assistance must be given to ensure the survival of the people being targeted. The mass exodus of Rohingya from Myanmar has become further complicated regarding the supply of resources to the refugee camps that they are going to. Between November 1, 2016, to December 9, 2016, 22,000 Rohingya Muslims fled Myanmar to camps in Bangladesh. These camps must be provided with sufficient resources to aid the people who need it.
    The Netherlands believes that the best course of action to help the Rohynga inside and outside Myanmar is to make the top priority providing aid. In order to be able to provide aid to the Rohynga, Myanmar must be open to allowing aid to enter the region of the Rakhine, as well as accepting the Rohynga people as Rohynga. Providing aid will, not only help keep the Rohynga people safe and healthy, which is the primary goal, but will also help to instill a notion of confidence and give a reason to support the government of Myanmar, from their people. If the people of Myanmar become more comfortable with their nation, then there will be more stability within the nation, thus making it harder for terrorism to take hold. For Myanmar to allow such aid into the nation, the Myanmar government must, first, recognize the atrocities occurring within the nation.
    In order for Myanmar to become open to aid, there must be outside influences from the international community to help persuade Myanmar. This effort could start by providing aid to the refugees outside of Myanmar, and working the way into the nation through diplomacy as well as providing protection to the refugees in camps through setting up a peacekeeping campaign. If Myanmar still will not yield to foreign aid coming into the nation for the Rohynga, sanctions must be placed on Myanmar. The import of fabrics and the export of timber and natural gas must have sanctions placed onto it, to further pressure the Myanmar government to help the Rohynga people.
    “United Nations Peacekeeping.” United Nations, United Nations, peacekeeping.un.org/en/role-of-security-council.
    Ives, Mike. “14 Countries Press Myanmar to Allow Aid in Rohingya Areas.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 22 Dec. 2017, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/09/world/asia/myanmar-rohingya-crisis-rakhine-muslim.html
    .“Letter Dated 23 August 2018 from the Permanent Representative of the Netherlands to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/2018/779) – Myanmar.” ReliefWeb, 23 Aug. 2018, reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/letter-dated-23-august-2018-permanent-representative-netherlands-united-nations.

  • Ckuntzman
    Ckuntzman November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: United Nations Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in Myanmar
    Country: The United States of America
    Delegate: Caroline Kuntzman
    School: Forest Hills Northern

    The situation in Myanmar is of great concern. Approximately 700,000 Rohingya have fled Myanmar’s Rakhine state and there have been reports of mass killings, gang rape, and entire villages destroyed. It is the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world. While refugee camps have been set up in neighboring Bangladesh, conditions for the refugees are poor. Camps are ill equipped to provide for the food and medical needs of the people. Sanitation is also an issue. According to the International Organization for Migration, Rohingya refugee camps such as the one at Cox’s Bazar there have been reports of women and girls being abducted for sexual exploitation and forced labor.

    The United States is committed to helping with this crisis. In the past year, the United States has provided approximately $389 million in aid for those affected by the crisis both in and around Myanmar. They have also sanctioned four members of Myanmar’s military and taken in over 5,000 Rohingya refugees as of 2016. When Myanmar’s government detained three journalists for reporting on the murder of Rohingya men, US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, advocated for their release.

    The United States will continue providing aid for the Rohingya crisis.This aid will be given to displaced people within within Myanmar and Bangladesh and other vulnerable populations in Myanmar. It is not only important to protect the Rohingya, but insure that other groups do not become targets. The United States requests that Myanmar allow aid workers to enter the country and asks that bordering countries do not close their borders to fleeing Rohingya. The United States urges that all countries cooperate with the UN Security Council in investigating the atrocities. Myanmar cannot attempt to hide those responsible for the atrocities; the perpetrators must be brought to justice.

  • JamesA
    JamesA November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Security Council
    Topic: Situation in Myanmar
    Country: Republic of Poland
    Delegate: James Aidala
    School: Forest Hills Central High School

    Long ago, Arab traders settled in the Bengal region now composed of Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. These traders then mixed with the local Bengali population, creating a new ethnic group now known as the Rohingya. Since the 1970s, many Rohingya have immigrated to Myanmar, causing ethnic tensions with the Buddhist majority. Upon the 2014 census, Myanmar excluded the Rohingya from its numbers, stating they were illegal Bangladeshi immigrants. This series of ethnic escalations would continue until it finally snapped on August 25th, 2017. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) launched attacks on several police positions. In retaliation, the Burmese military swept through the region on a clearance operation; however, the army is reported to be conducting an ethnic cleansing campaign against the Rohingya. Reports find practices such as burning villages, mass rape, systematic killing, and other war crimes. While the government of Myanmar denies this, there are still hundreds of thousands of desperate refugees now in Bangladesh.
    Historically, Poland’s people have known oppression under many powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, the USSR, and others. We have experienced firsthand genocides against our people and treat the issue with utmost seriousness. Currently, Poland has worked with the UNSC to address this issue in the past. In May of 2018, Joanna Wronecka, UN ambassador of Poland, called for humanitarian assistance and a long term strategy to aid refugees currently in Bangladesh. Specifically, the UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration would be helpful actors in this regard. Later that month, after the release of a UN fact-finding report detailing large scale abuses, Ambassador Wronecka stated,“We have been deeply concerned about the findings of the report, especially with regard to abuses, which might be treated as crimes in accordance with the international law. In this context… it is necessary to focus on impunity and accountability for these crimes.” In October of this year, Poland voted “yes” alongside the USA, UK, France, Ivory Coast, Kuwait, Peru, Sweden, and the Netherlands on allowing Marzuki Darusman, chair of the UN fact-finding commission on Myanmar, to brief the Security Council, detailing myriad abuses which could be prosecuted as war crimes.
    During this session of the Security Council, Poland would advocate for, at the least, humanitarian access to refugees in Bangladesh and Myanmar. As a result of the findings of the UN commission, Poland would consider a referral of Myanmar to the ICC as proposed by the Netherlands. Regardless of who is or is not to blame, Poland will absolutely refuse inaction as policy.

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    Nick Smith November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Security Council
    Topic: The Situation in Myanmar
    Country: The Plurinational State of Bolivia
    Delegate: Nick Smith
    School: Vicksburg High School

    The crisis in Myanmar is that of great concern. The situation has escalated swiftly from oppression of ethnic groups to globally acknowledged humanitarian crisis and a type of  “ethnic cleansing” comparable to a genocide, leaving the Rohingya people of Myanmar in dire need of aid. Violence is breaking out across the region with reports of villages being leveled and mass murders being committed, and these attacks have all aimed at the Rohingya people. While these attacks have been directed at the Rohingya, this violence has affected other ethnic groups including the Hindus. These acts of violence need to be answered with long lasting and swift arriving punishments. Those affected by the attacks often flee to neighboring countries such as Bangladesh which in turn puts a strain on the people taking the many refugees in. This crisis is growing at an exponential rate and needs immediate attention before it worsens.
        The Plurinational State of Bolivia is aware of these issues, worried for the well being of those involved in the attacks and is deeply concerned by the lack of Myanmar’s transparency regarding the subject. This dire situation has been left unchecked for far too long and it is now to the point where international intervention is required. This situation turned crisis has no easy solutions but must be resolved before Myanmar’s state worsens.
    Bolivia eagerly awaits to solve this issue in committee and work with other nations to create sound long-term resolutions to bring peace to and rebuild the nation of Myanmar.

  • Zheng
    Zheng November 14, 2018 Reply

    Security Council
    Myanmar Rohingya Genocide
    The State of Kuwait
    Alex Zheng

    Starting in late 2016 the “Republic” of the Union Myanmar began its crackdown on the Rohingya minority following several attacks by Islamic extremists. On 24 March 2017, the UN Human Rights Council agreed to form an independent fact-finding mission on Myanmar to look into “alleged recent human rights violations by military and security forces.” They found that the army has systematically targeted civilians, including women and children, committed sexual violence, voiced and promoted exclusionary and discriminatory rhetoric against minorities, and established a climate of impunity for its soldiers, The flood of refugees to neighboring states is only leading to more persecution for the muslim minority. The mission also suggested the opening of a new investigation on the commander-in-chief for “genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.” This mindless, hate fueled brutality has no place in the civilized world and must be addressed at haste.

    Article of 33 of the 4th Geneva convention states that “Individual responsibility, collective penalties, pillage and reprisals. No protected person may be punished for an offense he or she has not personally committed. … Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.” The Quran chapter 9 verse 5 states that, And when the forbidden months have passed, kill the idolaters wherever you find them and take them prisoners. By slaughtering the “non-believers” Myanmar is no different from ISIS. One of Allah’s names is peace, islam is a religion of peace. Surah Al-Hajj – Verse 40 states those who have been expelled from their homes without right, except that they say: ‘Our Lord is Allah’. And had Allah not repelled some people by others, certainly there would have been pulled down cloisters and churches and synagogues and the mosques in which Allah’s name is much mentioned; and verily Allah will help him who helps Him; for verily Allah is Strong, Mighty. Therefore it is the duty of Kuwait as a muslim country to come to the aid of our brothers under the guidance of Allah.

    The state of Kuwait wishes to authorize UN peacekeeping mission to halt the genocide of civilian non-combatants within Myanmar. The peacekeeping mission should be comprised of 50% neighboring nations and 50% islamic nation. Clearly current UN actions against the Myanmar regime have little to no effect therefore if the killing, burning, raping, and sacking does not stop the international community will be forced to take more drastic actions. We hope that more sanctions and international pressure will lead the leaders of Myanmar to calmer heads, but if all else fails then then last option is to enforce martial law and put a forceful stop to the genocide of the rohinda muslim minority.

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