The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones

Conflict has transitioned from being fixed at the battlefield to guerrilla-style warfare, which is not defined by state boundaries and is now a part of everyday life for citizens in conflict zones around the world. The changing nature of conflict has led to an increase in both indirect and intentional civilian casualties. During the mid-1990s, conflicts in Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sierra Leone, and East Timor prompted the UN to place civilian protection on the agenda. Groups most vulnerable to conflict include children, who are more sensitive to witnessing violence, are at risk of being used as child soldiers, and are more likely to become malnourished. Women are also disproportionately affected, and are likely to become victims of conflict-related sexual violence, or to become targets and tools in war. Healthcare workers and hospitals providing essential care to civilians in need are increasingly being targeted by parties to armed conflict. Conflicts uproot people and force them out of their homes, creating a massive refugee crisis.

 

On May 22nd, 2018, UN Secretary-General António Guterres stated that, of the more than 128 million people around the world who need humanitarian aid, the majority of this need is created by conflict. He also called for the development of a National Policy Framework for the protection of civilians in every state, engagement with non-state actors to create plans for ending atrocities against civilians, supported advocacy for the protection of civilians, and ensured accountability for violating parties through the international courts if necessary. Developing and enforcing these policies in each member state is necessary to protect civilians, and also to provide groundwork for lasting peace. There is currently a multitude of existing resolutions relevant to the issues facing civilians in conflict zones. However, many of these documents, such as UN Security Council Resolution 2286 (2016) addressing the protection of healthcare workers, have not seen very much success or implementation. There is a significant lack of dialogue about the protection of both women and children in conflict – two groups with distinct needs, though they are often grouped together. The challenge of dealing with non-state actors and their actions against civilians remains unresolved. The protection of civilians is a topic that has a long history at the UN, yet violations against civilians have only increased.

 

Implementation and enforcement remain a major problem in the protection of civilians. Attacks against health care workers and healthcare centers discourage health care workers from helping more people, cost valuable expertise, discourage civilians from seeking medical help, and affect vulnerable populations. Attacks against civilians have been correlated with a rise in terrorism and as major impediments to long lasting peace, creating even more incentive to reduce human rights violations. How can DISEC respond to more effectively protect the rights of civilians in the ever-changing dynamic of conflict zones?

  • Srees1
    Srees1 November 8, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Philippines
    Sreevas Ramakrishnan

    Today, in conflict zones throughout the world, civilians are routinely killed and towns are harmed and devastated. For example, the six countries of Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Somalia, and Yemen all had 26,000 deaths and injuries together; 10,000 of these casualties were in Afghanistan. Individuals are cut off from sustenance, water, and life-saving help, and at times, starved as a strategy of war. Around the world, humanitarian aid and personnel are killed, harmed, abducted or prevented from helping these people in need. Civilians in these war-torn areas are prone to sexual violence and violations of human rights. United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres stated, “more than 128 million people around the world need immediate humanitarian aid” and “the most effective way to protect civilians is to prevent conflicts and to end them.” The United Nations has taken efforts to help these civilians by sending medical personnel, providing financial assistance, and relocating civilians to safer places.
    Starting from June 6, 2017, the Filipino army has been fighting the terrorist group, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), in the southern city of Marawi. This war resulted in the fleeing of 180,000 civilians and the death of 170 people. As the Filipino government regained control of the city, a constant rise of Islamic terrorist groups like ISIS is appearing; ISIS is attempting to take over the islands of the Philippines such as Mindanao. In response to this ongoing problem, the Philippines is focusing more toward external defense, embarking on a defense modernization program including the process of moving the land-heavy Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) toward air and maritime locations. Despite Duterte’s emotions towards the US, the relationship between both countries is vital to develop anti-terrorism methods. There was armed conflict in this city for five years because of the prejudices held against the Muslim and native populations. However, this conflict came to an end as a result of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Government of the Philippines. These conflicts in Marawi and Mindanao displaced civilians, deprived their bare necessities, and put them in deep danger as they were in control of ISIS. The president of the Philippines, Rodrigo Duterte criticized the works of the UN as they have failed to combat hunger and terrorism in war zone areas and failed to end the numerous homicides in Iraq and Syria.
    The Philippines proposes for the United Nations to further aid civilians in relocating them to secure locations. The UN needs to help displaced persons leave their dangerous home and provide shelters for them. To reduce the use of nuclear weapons, the UN should impose stricter bans on arms and weapons of mass destruction for the overall safety of civilians. The Philippines does not make or own any nuclear weapons and urges other countries to reduce their number of arms. As there are many agreements and resolutions about the number of troops in a location, the Philippines urges the UN to enforce these previously created resolutions by increasing the number of troops to aid the people in conflict areas. By doing this, civilians can be relocated easier and don’t need to stay in their war-torn homes. In addition, the Philippines urges the UN to combat hunger and poverty in this region. The “war on drugs” illustrates the ongoing problem; “if you are poor, you are killed.” Duterte’s solution to the drug crisis is to kill the people in possession of them. The Philippines realizes the effect wars, internally and externally, can have on a region’s population as it displaces people and deprives them of human rights.

  • Kumar
    Kumar November 10, 2018 Reply

    As a country, Saudi Arabia has been the use of Nuclear Arms. Not only do we not have a nuclear program, but in fact we encourage other countries against it. In 1968 we signed Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons whose goal was to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology while promoting the use of nuclear power. We would wholeheartedly endorse stricter bans on nuclear arms and weapons of mass destruction. Saudi Arabia is also very willing to provide shelter for displaced peoples fleeing war torn countries. We have a very large immigrant population, now at 33% of national population. We have housed and received 2.5 Million Syrian refugees since 2011. We will have no problem taking in refugees from the Philippines. We will also be willing to provide monetary humanitarian aid to people in need in the Philippines. We have one of largest humanitarian budgets and are more than willing to give money to help people in need. In fact we have given over 33 Billion dollars to humanitarian relief causes. On drug enforcement methods, however, we are inclined to agree with President Duterte. Drugs are a crime that we do not tolerate not take lightly. We refuse to fund the stoppage of President Duterte’s efforts or anybody who contributes to the stoppage of President Duterte’s efforts.

  • Jackrstarling
    Jackrstarling November 10, 2018 Reply

    Committee : Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic Area : Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country : Greece
    Delegate : Jack Starling

    Conflict zones have become increasingly prevalent in the world’s recent history. Now, the effects of these conflict zones, like regions in the Middle East, like Yemen, and in Central America, like Venezuela, on local residents can clearly be observed. Conflict zones subject specifically women and children to pain and suffering daily. Children are under constant threat of being exploited into becoming child soldiers. Women are often targeted with sexual aggression and abuse. Both groups are at a high risk of violence from both sides of the conflict and of health issues like malnutrition. In Yemen, “At least 462,000 children suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM)” and “1.7 million children suffer from Moderate Acute Malnutrition.” according to UNICEF as of December of 2016. Healthcare officials have also been targeted in the past, making it harder for these suffering people to get the help that they desperately need. Conflict zones have also created vast refugee populations, as of late. South Sudan reported that roughly 740,000 people emigrated in 2016, according to UNHCR.
    While Greece has not been able to offer much help independently to face the problems of conflict zones, the country of Greece is involved in many efforts of the European Union(EU). Namely, the European Union has established and supported the Open Society Foundation(OSF). The Open Society Foundation “support those who work to protect the legal rights of migrants and refugees, and to ease the challenges of integration“ according an official statement of the Foundation. Greece also encourages and appreciates any efforts to house refugees or alleviate the situation of the citizens in conflict zones.
    Greece suggests that the United Nations to take additional action to help refugees. Specifically, many immigrants need health care, housing, income, and help assimilating into their new cultures. Noting that Greece is at an intersection between Asia and Africa(regions with many conflict zones) and Europe(a place willing to accept refugees), Greece would be honored to offer this strategic place to the efforts of helping refugees relocate if it means that the UN could bring about meaningful change.

  • RTalla
    RTalla November 11, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    El Salvador
    Rushil Talla

    Around the world, many wars are fought, countless lives are lost, and in most of these wars, civilians have become a major target. Because of the increase in guerrilla warfare, it is hard for militaries to hunt for their enemies while avoiding locations inhabited with civilians because these enemies hide with the civilians. In other words, the battlefield has moved from the borders of countries to inhabited areas. Children’s minds are altered from witnessing the warfare occurring in their surroundings, permanently scarring them and the war deplete their resources, increasing their chances of becoming malnourished and dying. Also, children have been forced to fight and used as expendable soldiers. In Uganda in 1986, the resistance army used and estimated 3,000 children so that they could have food and protection. People such as healthcare workers have been targeted which is a problem because it discourages other healthcare workers to work placing the civilians in a precarious position. The UN has passed documents such as the UN Security Council Resolution 2286 which addressed the protection of healthcare workers but they haven’t been implemented or enforced.

    El Salvador has had a rocky past with the killing of civilians in an attempt for suppressing gangs and fend off aggressive groups against the nation. There were many battles which took the form of guerrilla style warfare and in order to cease the fights, the government detained any person that they thought might be against the government resulting in many civilian deaths. After about 12 years of hunting for adversaries, and around 75,000 total deaths, the government finally ended the bloody conflict with the signing of a pact with the leaders of the rebels. The high death toll was largely due to the presence of innocent civilians in the conflicted zone where gangs and rebels fought and hid. Also, the parents of children were often killed and the children were stolen by armed forces and were often abused. Since the civil war ended in 1992, El Salvador has moved onwards to help people in conflict zones. On April 18, 2002, El Salvador became a part of the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict from the year 2000. This protocol prohibits the use of children under the age of 15 years from being used to participate in hostile activities as well as specific provisions to protect children. These provisions include protection from hostilities, special care and aid including food and medicine, as well as education.

    El Salvador would like to propose that the Disarmament and International Security Committee evacuates civilians from conflict zones by using any safe means of transportation such as buses, boats, or planes and find a place for the refugees to live so that these innocent civilians don’t end up as cannon fodder in war. The Disarmament and International Security Committee should also pass resolutions that guarantee the safety of those who cannot defend themselves such as children and health care workers. A resolution that protects the innocent people in ways that countries can not by themselves will save countless lives and reduce death tolls due to war.

  • Samray123
    Samray123 November 12, 2018 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Honduras
    Delegate: Sam Ray

    In conflict zones, there are many risks for civilians who are not fighting. In the past, most conflicts were resolved on the battlefield, however, now most conflict zones are fought over with guerilla warfare. This style of warfare consists of raids, ambushes, or sabotage, and is usually run by organized civilians or semi militarized personnel. It is much less organized than traditional warfare. As this war tactic is used more and more, more innocent civilian lives have been taken, both intentionally and unintentionally. In these conflict zones, children are being used as soldiers.

    Conflict zones are common in Honduras, often caused by gangs. In the past, Honduras has passed legislation to try to protect their civilians in conflict zones. This has not helped much though. Honduras wants to help civilians in these places, but it is not very easy to do it alone. To fight gang violence, Honduras has passed legislation to strengthen prison sentences and new legal tools for prosecuting gang members. Honduras’ Congress approved reforms to Article 332 of the country’s Penal Code, known as the “anti-gang law,” that increase potential prison terms for gang members to between 20 and 30 years, reported the AFP. Those deemed by judges and prosecutors to be a gang leader also now face up to 50 years behind bars. The previous law sentenced gang leaders to between three and six years in prison, and included an approximate $4,750 fine.

    While these legislations can help, they will never be able to protect all civilians from battle in conflict zones. Honduras suggests that DISEC assists countries in need of help with conflict zones. Innocent men, women, and children are dying in conflict zones, and DISEC must help these people. However, Honduras recommends that DISEC listens to the people most negatively affected in these zones. DISEC should evacuate civilians in conflict zones to safer places. These places could offer food, shelter and work for the civilians affected. The countries who are deemed most responsible should be held accountable for their actions.

  • ROK.DISEC
    ROK.DISEC November 12, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Republic of Korea
    Kevin Portinga

    For almost 70 years the various committees of the United Nations have debated how to best protect civilians who reside in conflict zones around the world. In that time, many exemplary resolutions have been passed that have undertaken massive efforts to improve the human rights situation of civilians caught in conflict. The Republic of Korea can speak from first hand experience how conflict can create untold devastation on civilian populations. However, we can also attest to the power of the United Nations, and how their actions can protect innocents around the world.

    In this new age of warfare, where vastly undermanned forces overcome their disadvantage by using civilian population centers and guerilla warfare to achieve victory, an already blurred line between combatant and noncombatant has become harder and harder to draw. As long as these tactics are effective, they will continue to be used in warfare. Therefore, the Republic of Korea recommends extreme measures be taken to protect health workers in conflict zones, and make it easier for various international organizations to care for civilians without fear of death or harm. According to the World Health Organization the year of 2017 included over 300 attacks on healthcare workers or healthcare facilities in conflict zones, a number that is far too high. The Disarmament and International Security committee must do everything it can provide security for the international heroes that risk their own lives, along with oftentimes their family’s well being, to save the lives of some of the world’s most vulnerable civilian populations.

    Beyond the risks posed to healthcare workers by non-state actors, a major threat is also posed by states who have no regard for the international laws surrounding them. Our committee must pass even stronger and stricter restrictions and punishments for those states who murder innocent healthcare workers.

  • avatar image
    EthiopiaDisec November 13, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Ethiopia
    Jack Swanson

    Section 1: History, Legislation, and Actions:

    Ethiopia, a developing nation, has had trouble protecting civilians during times of war. During the Ethiopian-Eritrean war, many eritrean immigrants to Ethiopia, especially those living close to the battlefields, were deported and assaulted by Ethiopian forces. However, this ended in 1999, when the entirety of the Ethiopian-Eritrean border had become a war zone. (1) The border between Ethiopia and Eritrea was a demilitarized zone, much like the one between the border of North and South Korea, only opening recently after 20 years of closure. (2) At this point, all the nation of Ethiopia can do is attempt to better treat civilians in wartime. Ethiopia has learned lessons from the border conflict, and is actively trying to make peace with Eritrea. The Ethiopian embassy has been reopened, and the President of Eritrea, Isaias Afwerki, is quoted as saying “henceforth, anyone who says Eritreans and Ethiopians are two different peoples is one that doesn’t know the truth.” (3). Although it has not happened yet, I do believe that Ethiopia will apologize for its actions during the war before the start of 2019. Ethiopia is truly showing initiative towards the humanitarian aspect by allowing those who have been displaced to cross the border once more. Just like Ethiopia as a whole, its perspective on the protection of its civilians is also improving.

    Section 2: Possible solutions

    With the fighting of the Ethiopian-Eritrean war being over for 20 years, and the war officially ending two months ago, I believe that Ethiopia should apologize for the mistreatment of Eritrean immigrants, and allow all displaced Eritrean immigrants to return. This would show that Ethiopia is truly trying to show that it is trying to treat civilians affected during wartime a lot better. Another possible solution is to send financial compensation to all affected by the war. Although it would strain the already bad Ethiopian economy, it would be viewed as a good thing in the eyes of the west, who might send aid to Ethiopia to continue the process. Overall, to show progress towards its treatment of war-affected civilians, Ethiopia must first make amends with those affected by its most recent conflict.

    CITATIONS:
    (1): United Nations. “Ethiopia and Eritrea: Human Rights Issues in a Year of Armed Conflict.” Refworld, Amnesty International, 21 May 1999, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6a9e36.html.
    (2): “Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Reopens after 20 Years.” BBC News, BBC, 11 Sept. 2018, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-45475876.
    (3) : Administrator, shabait. “State Lunch in Honor of President Isaias.” Eritrean Ministry Of Information, 14 July 2018, http://www.shabait.com/news/local-news/26678-state-lunch-in-honor-of-president-isaias

  • avatar image
    Malhar Amin November 13, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    United Arab Emirates
    Malhar Amin

    Conflict Zones are becoming an increasing concern in today’s community with civilians almost always being targeted, whether it be intentionally or unintentionally. Sentence 3: Civilians stay in conflict zones due to a lack of economic resources, fear for lost livelihoods, and the threat of extremists keeping them hostage. Conflict zones are found in regions such as the Middle East, Central America, Africa, and some parts of Asia. The conflict zones are most prominent in the Middle East. Specific individuals being targeted include women, children, and health care officials. Women are being subject to sexual violence, while children are being used as soldiers. Health care officials are specifically targeted to hurt the other side. According to the UNHCR there have been 68.5 million people forcibly displaced worldwide. Of the 68.5 million 25.4 million are refugees. 57% of all refugees come from South Sudan, Afghanistan, Syria. The UN Security Council have addressed and passed documents appealing to civilians, however, these documents have not been enforced, which is why action must be taken.
    United Arab Emirates currently houses more than 242,000 Syrian nationals. Since 2012 UAE has donated more than $530 million in humanitarian aid. It also funds refugee camps such as the Marajeeb Al Fhood, which houses 4,000 refugees. UAE is working with UNHCR programs to help civilians caught in warfare. Currently 85% of the world’s refugees are hosted by developing countries. Refugees don’t really get accepted into wealthy countries that can offer protection. UAE is leading as an example and hopes that other wealthy nations follow.
    Donations will be supplied to these groups, and keep offering refuge. UAE believes in order the save civilians in conflict zones the conflict have to be stopped as well. UAE would like to implement new programs, while working with other countries such as the P5 nations to provide necessities to civilians affected. UAE will not donate to warfare, as civilians have been killed by those trying to “help” them. If possible, UAE would like to call for a cease fire to figure out a peaceful agreement. If one cannot be reached only then will a more offensive stance be taken. UAE hopes it will not come to this and a peaceful agreement will minimize the civilians hurt in warfare.

  • 20MunsonCa
    20MunsonCa November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: Caroline Munson
    School: Williamston High School
    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights outlines the basic standards of human living and treatment. Its sole purpose is to protect basic human rights entitled to all people of every race, origin, color, sex, religion, or political affiliation. In conflict zones however, the basic human rights are often forgotten about or taken advantage of. The security of individual freedoms are not main priorities of rebel groups or warring governments. In fact, many times in war, opposing sides go after civilians to weaken their enemies. These human rights are stripped from them during a conflict they might not agree with. Possibly one of the most important articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the last one, states: “Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.” This, unfortunately, is often broken in times of conflict. People are kidnapped, sold as property, killed, raped, the list goes on. This sadly occurs everywhere, but the amount of this malicious activity greatly increases in regions of conflict. Which spurs a question, how do we protect our own people?
    The Democratic Republic of the Congo is not the first nor the last country to experience conflicts that have had extreme negative impacts on its citizens. The riots for independence in the 60’s, more recent tensions between Uganda, Rwanda and DRC including terrorist groups, and just in the past few years, the civil war in South Sudan. All these surrounding and internal strifes have put thousands of people in harm. Families on the front lines, women and children being raped in refugee camps seeking shelter, not to mention the stigma that comes with pursuing help; whether that be medical, mental, economic, etc. The stigma may come from the government, opposing side, or even cultural traditions. Especially in central Africa, men make the decisions for their families and have control over their wives and children. If the hurt speak out, they could be killed, shunned, or lose respect.
    Is there really a way to resolve all violations of basic human rights? DR Congo has passed laws to sentence perpetrators of human rights, but they are poorly enforced. There is no one law all countries could adopt, if all countries could agree on one thing, that would be strong, detailed and enforced enough to ensure human rights are not violated. It is only on an individual country basis that laws can be made that could come close to accomplishing security and other freedoms to every person. Even then, not every person can be saved. But with strong and concise laws that are passed specific to each countries’ needs, and enforced by those that will hold these laws in mind and not abuse it, can liberties of the people be ensured. DR Congo looks forward to debating this topic not with specific countries, but with the committee as a whole.

  • Westmax
    Westmax November 13, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protection of Civilians in War Zones
    Sweden
    Max West
    In this day and age it has become normal for citizens living in towns and cities to be casualties of war. Especially in countries in the Middle East and Central America such as Yemen, Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, and Venezuela, where the civilian casualties combined per year is over 20,000. Women and children are the main targets for militia as women and girls are raped and sexual assaulted, and children are are more likely to be recruited into the military as child-soldiers. In some cases this is so severe that military groups are deliberately targeting schools and hospitals. Even Secretary-General António Guterres has stated, “Of the more than 128 million people around the world who need humanitarian aid, the majority of this need is created by conflict.” While the UN has taken actions to help relocate civilians to safer areas and provide civilians with food and shelter, Sweden believes that this is truly a matter of establishing equal rights in these war zones.
    While Sweden has never faced the problem of dealing with a war zone in their own boundaries, Sweden is one of the leading support countries for the peace operations of the UN. Over 80,000 Swedes have served as UN peacekeepers to help out with conflicts in areas such as Mali, and has been actively been contributing to the UN’s peace operations. Recently, Sweden has also been generating troops for peace support operations to try and expand support and capacity. Along with this contribution Sweden has always been a major advocate for equal rights among all groups and believes these same ideas and methods could work in war zones in the Middle East and Central America.
    Sweden proposes that the UN helps to ensure civilians equal rights among conflict zones. Especially women, as giving women equal rights will help to eliminate sexual assault and get rid of the differing standards in these areas. Overall eliminating gender inequalities will reduce conflicts between civilians and militia groups. Along with this Sweden believes that giving women and girls the right to quality education will help eliminate these conflicts in such areas.

  • Timhealey
    Timhealey November 13, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Indonesia
    Warfare has changed since the day it was just one group versus another, now guerrilla style warfare is the norm in the current geopolitical environment. The days of clearly marked enemies and now civilian casualties have became expected. Child soldiers are being used to kill and enforce power, Currently there are still thousands of children being forced into the military. This is something Indonesia has had a unfortunate history with. In 1999 due to a religious conflict 5,000 people were killed, during this fight children were put out on the front line which resulted in many of the deaths being children as young as 10.
    Civilian safety is not only important to Indonesia but a problem that is prevalent in everyday life with recently a church was bombed killing 13 people. Isis constantly terrorizes Indonesia and the civilians are the targets for the attacks and due to Aceh rebels the safety of the Indonesian people is the number one priority. To help end children soldiers Indonesia’s military is voluntary and has a age requirement of 18 with the help of help of peace agents Indonesia hopes that part of their history will be left behind. There have been two waves of attacks on Indonesia by the Achenese causing thousands of civilian deaths, Indonesia is forced to send 22,000 troops to settle down rebellions.

    https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights/child-soldiers
    https://www.theguardian.com/observer/worldview/story/0,11581,768422,00.html
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/opinion/isis-terrorism-indonesia-women.html
    http://time.com/5275738/indonesia-suicide-bombings-isis-surabaya/

  • Api.sen
    Api.sen November 13, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Canada
    Api Sen

    The United Nations has been requested by numerous African, European, and Asian countries for the help of protecting its civilians that are in hostile conditions due to uncontrollable warfare.
    Many nations’ citizens are experiencing traumatic casualties that are resulting in both; indirect and intentional losses. Additionally, children and women are major factors being involved in the crisis. Children are used as soldiers and acts of terrorism, and women are being held against their will as victims of sexual violence and, or targets of the wars occurring. UN Secretary-General António Guterres has faced this problem head-on and realizes the significant horrors these civilians are facing. A major element of this belongs to the fact that enforcing these rules are rare when it comes to the nation as a whole. Many health care workers are hesitant in supporting the civilians in need due to posts that are set up are often attacked and workers are taken hostage or killed; many of which are citizens of UN countries. Attacks like these are on an uprising after the United States bombing of Kunduz, Afghanistan medical sites. These attacks also often lead to terrorist activity and a downfall for human rights. Therefore, if the UN acts properly, DISEC will be able to bring these civilians into safety.

    Canada has taken numerous initiatives to aid in the protection of the civilians suffering major consequences in the stated conflict zones. Canada and Switzerland are working in the implementation of UNSCR 2286 which provides countries an opportunity to collaborate to discuss the best practices possible. Overall, this proposal supports the effect of other countries to join Canada in the battle to protect these civilians. Canada has also been a major supporter of international law and ending targeted attacks upon innocent civilians, humanitarian, and medical personnel. Therefore, Canada is fully committed to finding those who do not follow the international law upon humanitarian rights; therefore we are providing assistance with the funding of documentation and evidence collecting. And in being a national leader in the department of security, Canadian Armed Forces are trained to follow humanitarian laws, furthering the effect Canada has on foreign nations and their views alongside the treatment of humans.

    Canada proposes that the United Nations provide these civilians inside the boundaries of the stated conflict zones with the support of peacekeepers who will protect the lives of those necessary. Many civilians were prompted as to be in danger due to guerilla-style warfare, and the use of humans as weapons against others. Women and children are seen as inferior to those battling and therefore used as either child soldiers or sufferers to sexual violence. In response, Canada is aiding with the support of UNICEF’s program to end child soldiers by providing $2 million in hopes to prevent recruitment of children. Canada is also fighting to end sexual violence against women in these areas. Canada calls upon DISEC and the United Nations to adopt comprehensive, gender-sensitive preventive, protective, and prosecutorial measures in order to create safe environments that allow women to feel safe and comfortable with themselves and those around. These inhuman engagements have proven to being major issues, and Canada hopes that with the contribution of the United Nations and the Disarmament and International Security Committee, together we can put an end to this.

  • Sophiapapp
    Sophiapapp November 13, 2018 Reply

    November 12, 2018
    Syrian Arab Republic
    Disarmament and International Security
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Royal Oak High School
    Sophia Papp

    In conflict zones around the world, civilians deaths are an unfortunate byproduct of war, and Syria has faced this tragedy firsthand. According to the Syrian Network for Human Rights, 222,114 civilians have died in conflict since March 2011, 27,989 of which were children and 25,179 were women1. This staggering statistic can be attributed to the destruction and national insecurity caused by a rise in terrorism, a crisis occurring in countless nations. In Syria, this rise in terrorism arose with the violent rebel uprisings of 2011, and continued with the emergence of the Islamic State. The Islamic State has indiscriminately targeted citizens, committed brutal acts of violence with no regard to human rights, and spread fear to all nations. Additionally, foreign intervention, especially that of Western nations, has incited greater conflict and created more devastating damage to infrastructure, national security, and the lives of Syrians. Syria prioritizes protecting its people from terrorist influence and refuses to be a puppet of western political interests.

    Syrians in the crossfires of terror attacks suffer from shrapnel injuries, chemical burns and resulting respiratory system damage, mental health illnesses such as anxiety, and other injuries in desperate need of medical attention. Deteriorating sanitation and water quality are occuring in urban centres targeted by violence and in more rural areas that are more difficult for humanitarian aid to reach. Amidst violent conflict, barriers in providing citizens adequate health care and medical treatment arise. Especially in terrorist-held regions of Syria, medical convoys are blocked by barricades, destroyed roads, and other conditions that can be detrimental to the safety of medical staff. Additionally, many hospitals and clinics have become collateral damage of destructive, indiscriminate terrorist bombings, rendering them obsolete. For example, according to WHO’s Syrian Annual Report, “In September 2017, three hospitals and several ambulances in Idleb governorate were hit by airstrikes within a few hours of each other, killing one health care worker and severely injuring another. All three hospitals suffered significant structural damage and were forced to close. These facilities, which had been serving approximately 16,000 people per month, are no longer functional.”2 Such attacks, defined as “attacks on healthcare” by the World Health Organization, are distressing to the nation of Syria, and highlight the importance of preserving medical facilities and protecting staff in conflict zones.

    To prevent attacks on healthcare, Syria calls for greater implementation and enforcement of protection efforts. For example, Syrian values the sentiments of Security Council Resolution 2286 (2016), specifically its call to honor humanitarian rights and its demand for nations to “facilitate safe and unimpeded passage for medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties. While Syria agrees with the purpose of Resolution 2254, including civilian protection clauses such as,“Demands that all parties immediately cease any attacks against civilians and civilian objects as such, including attacks against medical facilities and personnel”, we believe it foreign intervention efforts to enforce this resolution will only increase tensions and conflict. Instead, a system of transparency and unbiased protection efforts are vital to protecting civilians. For example, the OPCW has led multiple medical studies on the effects of chemicals weapons with the purpose of properly identifying toxins for the safety of civilians, not making accusations on the weapon use.3 Syria calls upon DISEC to be a leader in developing solutions to prevent attacks on healthcare, but to not interfere in domestic affairs through foreign force and mandates.

    As a result of the threat of terrorism, a refugee crisis like no other has developed in Syria and neighboring nations. 6.6 million Syrians are displaced, 2.98 million of which are in hard-to-reach and besieged areas.4 Refugees struggle to safely relocate from live conflict zones, and often settle in camps only to endure unsanitary conditions, harassment of women, a lack of resources, and an incredible uncertainty of the security and prosperity of their future. Most inability to properly supply refugee camps comes not from a lack of funding, but from the physical inability to safely transport goods to camps due to terrorists threats. For example, inhabitants of a refugee camp in Rukban describe their isolation from life-sustaining necessities as dying a “slow death”, this isolation being caused by a lack of compliance from the Jordan government to allow humanitarian aid to pass through its border.5 Such threats emphasize a need for convoy security and the support of the Syrian government regaining terrorist-held lands to best protect civilians. Additionally, Syria believes the wealthy European Union is not accomodating for these innocent civilians as well as it should be. A quick Google search of Kurdish refugee- and three year old child- Alan Kurdi face down on the Turkish shore, dead, shows the pure inhumanity of the reluctance of European nations to accept and support refugees, who are instead left to pay the price of death. Syria calls upon able nations to increase the amount of refugees they will accept into their country and for nations to combat the xenophobia that is causing children to lose their lives in desperate efforts to flee a certain death in conflict-torn cities.

    Syria is hesitant to adopt a National Policy Framework knowing that it may very well be utilized by nations to justify foreign intervention. Despite this fact, Syria recognized the value of instating proactive measures to respond to civilian harm, and looks forward to the development of such measures, including a strong national military defense. Additionally, measures can be taken to protect civilians in urban warfare, including the prohibition of indiscriminate weapons. Accountability is vital to the ever-confusing landscape of warfare, and has shown a commitment to accountability through its compliance with unbiased surveys, such as those from the OPCW investigating chemical weapon use with the purpose of serving the treatment of injured civilians.

    Syria looks forwards to collaborating with all nations on a sufficient and comprehensive solution for the protection of civilians in conflict zones

    1 http://sn4hr.org/
    2 http://www.who.int/emergencies/crises/syr/syria-who-annualreport2017.pdf?ua=1
    3 https://www.opcw.org/our-work/responding-use-chemical-weapons
    4 http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/syria-emergency.html
    5 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/11/aid-trucks-reach-remote-refugee-camp-syria-18110312 3205889.html

  • Jquist
    Jquist November 13, 2018 Reply

    DISEC
    Protecting Citizens In Armed Conflict Zones
    Venezuela
    Jonathan Quist
    Our government goes through great measures to protect the citizens living in our country through conflict zones. Protecting our citizens is one of Venezuela’s biggest priorities, and we consider it very important, and a great value to our great nation.
    Political extremism has been built up in our country and has attacked many of our loyal citizens through these horrific revolts. The government has done what they need to do to repel these horrific attacks against our people. An example would include the revolt on september 1, 2016 when these extremists protested the election of president Maduro. These extremists were very threatening towards our government, and we handled it with great care and caution. We sent police forces over there to make sure nothing too serious went down, and it was a huge success. No violence broke out, and overall the crisis was everted.

  • Lukeschafer
    Lukeschafer November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: United Kingdom
    Committee: DISEC
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: Luke Schafer

    Our world has been roiled by conflict for the past few decades. While many combatants have died, the majority of the people who have perished in conflict zones have been innocent civilians. There have been brutal accounts of violence against non combatants in recent conflict from in Syria to Rwanda to Nigeria. In each of these conflicts there were, or are, inadequate protections to ensure the safety of those not actively participating in the conflict. For example in Syria, it is entirely unacceptable that the Syrian Regime, backed by Russia and Iran, targeted their civilians with gas attacks and that the international community by and large stood by and watched. Another issue is the targeting of doctors and other social workers who are trying to aid the people affected by the crisis. There was a Security Council Resolution passed in 2016 intended to end attacks upon hospitals. However, more must still be done as evidenced by the fact that, according to the Red Cross, from 2011-2014 there were nearly 2400 attacks upon those trying to provide health care. This is unacceptable and many countries share in the blame, not just those in an active conflict zone.

    The United Kingdom has been engaged in many wars throughout its history, thank goodness not recently, but as a result of this we have a high level of expertise when dealing with this issue. Our government unequivocally condemns attacks on civilians and hospitals in conflict zones. The United Kingdom carries out drone strikes in the Middle East to kill terrorists, but we are very proud that our attacks have lead to very minimal collateral damage. This is a record that most other nations have not able to attain and it is a result of our military’s extreme caution when authorizing a strike. It is unfortunate however, that not all countries in the world are able to match this same regard for the safety of noncombatants. The United Kingdom has made their displeasure known with Syria’s attacks upon their civilians and for Russia’s enabling that allows the Syrian Regime to get away with this crime. This disregard for civilians as well as Saudi Arabia’s attacks in Yemen are something that we would like to see discussed in committee. Overall the UK knows that this is a very complex series of issues, but it is our hope that the UN will pass a resolution that encompasses the various facets of the topic.

    The United Kingdom has many ideas for ending this crisis and for protecting civilians, and one of those solutions deals with punishing those states responsible for targeting civilians. For example when Syria gassed their own innocent civilians, the UK would like the international community to take a hard stance against the aggressor. The UK also treats the targeting of hospitals by those in war zones to be entirely unacceptable. Any government that is found intentionally targeting hospitals should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of international law. The United Kingdom is also aware that this isn’t a black and white issue, terrorists will often use hospitals for protection and while this is a despicable act, the UK believe that it is not a viable excuse for bombing a place of refuge. Overall the United Kingdom wishes to see a resolution that results in increased protections for civilians in conflict zones, while punishing those nations and non state actors who violate these protections.

  • 22badraal
    22badraal November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: Brazil
    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: Alexandra Badra
    School: Williamston High School

    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones is a subject that the United Nations has a hard time implementing a solution to. This is mainly due to the fact that traditional , conflicts taking place on battlefields have transformed into guerilla warfare which makes battles irregular and out of state borders. Some of these battles force people out of their homes, leading a rise in refugees. Also an important thing to mention, is that the majority of humanitarian aid is created by conflict. In addition, Women and children are two major groups being affected by these attacks, creating a copious amount of problems such as malnutrition, and sexual violence.
    In the past, Brazil has had violence within their country, in fact it is has been so severe, that some considered it a war zone. However, Brazil moderated their violent streak by creating very strict gun laws to protect the country from unfit handlers. Additionally, Brazil partnered with the Rio de Janeiro-based NGO Viva Rio to carry out humanitarian and development initiatives in high-risk communities. Brazil deems less militaristic approaches more effective in peace operations.
    Furthermore, Brazil stands for the basic rules, norms, and principles of the International Humanitarian Law. Brazil defends the protection of non-combatants more broadly, not just as civilians. Also, Brazil believes that protection of civilians is a multidimensional task, and that the Security Council should use measures under both Chapters VI and VII of the UN Charter when dealing with PoC. Brazil also has had the help and support from the International Committee of the Red Cross since 2008. The ICRC will continue to help the country in working to reduce the impact of violence in urban locations on the population. The ICRC is centering their efforts on the most socially vulnerable, and the ones most exposed to violence. The ICRC is also training people in first aid, and promoting easier access to healthcare for people in the area of conflict. With the help of the ICRC, Brazil hopes to boost many communities’ capacity to cope with daily violence within their country.

  • Jessica_Robach
    Jessica_Robach November 13, 2018 Reply

    Israel
    DISEC
    Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Williamston High School
    Jessica Robach
    Civilian protection is a critical component of the United Nations agenda. It is imperative that the international community formulates ways in which to mitigate the impacts of guerrilla-style warfare across the world. The number of indirect and intentional civilian casualties occuring due to conflicts among nations is staggering. Solutions must be ratified in order to establish basic human rights and to aid in diminishing the refugee crisis. Helen Durham, Director for International Law and Policy at the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), noted that the number of internationally displaced persons has risen by over 30 million individuals over the past years. With the ongoing violation of international humanitarian laws, the number of displaced individuals will only continue to rapidly increased. International entities must be held responsible for wartime conduct on behalf of the United Nations.
    The delegation of Israel is not unfamiliar with conflict of a violent nature.The delegation’s continued conflict with Palestine has proven to be detrimental to civilian lives. However, having noted this, the delegation of Israel is committed to protecting the international community and condemning extreme acts of guerrilla warfare. Israel operates under protocols outlined Geneva Conventions Treaties of 1949, which outlaws cruel and unusual wartime tactics.
    Israel condemns entities that pursue to inflict civilian harm in times of conflict. Israel seeks to implement an international code similar to the Geneva Conventions Treaties that outlaws cruel and unusual wartime protocol. Israel also backs the notion of the deployment of peacekeeping forces. The delegation feels as if this issue is prominent enough to involve outside troops in means of preventing indirect and intentional civilian casualties. This tactic could aid in suppressing extremist groups.

  • Mikaylalomas
    Mikaylalomas November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: Belgium
    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: Mikayla Lomas
    School: Williamston High School
    As members of the Disarmament and International Security (DISEC), our responsibility is to deal with disarmament, global challenges and threats to peace that affects international community. This is key when addressing the topic of protection civilians in conflict zones. Civilians in areas where wars are happening have no protection against the enemy attacks or attacks meant to make the enemies retreat. According to the United Nations around 10,000 people have been killed in the fighting. Around 4,000 of those deaths were civilians. Majority of these deaths were due to the result of coalition air strikes against the government or vice versa. If DISEC does not help address this problem that occurs all around the world, countless lives will continue to be lost. As delegates of our respective countries, we have been chosen to represent our people in this situation and we must work collectively as a group and find a way to resolve this issue.
    The country of Belgium is a proud member of the Disarmament and International Security committee, we consider international security as one and indivisible. This also goes for disarmament, we believe in a global allowing us to strive for balanced progress in both domains. As nation states advance in creating new technology, they are creating weapons of mass destruction (WMD). These weapons have proven to be very dangerous in the sense that when these weapons are used they can inflict a lot of damage along with the danger of injuring and killing many civilians. In countries such as Africa and Central America, the threat to civilians is like an everyday normal. This is where WMDs are used, and these are usually overshadowed by the everyday dramas caused by the clashes involving just the use of conventional arms. Even in these situations in the use of conventional arms, Belgium still aims to limit the use of the weapons.
    Furthermore Belgium would like to find a way to limit and work towards ending the use of WMDs so that civilians are not injured or killed by these threats. We attempt to keep the issue of “human security” on top of the agenda on the main international institutions such as the UN. We would like to find a solutions that helps the civilians of these countries stay alive and strive in life. Belgium would like to propose the idea of putting limits on how many WMDs countries can have, or make sure they are all registered with some sort of database at the UN. In doing so this will help limit how many civilians are killed.

  • Jacobhowell56
    Jacobhowell56 November 13, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Italy
    Jacob Howell

    Security and protection of civilians is still a major problem in the Italian society. The shortfall of protecting the civilians in the conflict zones, which is an area marked by extreme violence, must come to an end. The conflict has turned into a guerilla-style warfare, which is becoming an everyday part of life for these civilians. The zones which impact Italy, are mostly in the Middle East and Western Europe. For children, the casualty rate has increased drastically. A child under 15 year of age dies every five seconds. Women are also affected greatly. They are constantly used for targets and tools for war, and are the victims of conflict-related sexual violence. Civilians are lashing out on the healthcare specialists, because of the outrages prices of the conflict-related costs for healthcare payments. These conflicts are forcing civilians out of their homes, and creating more chaos.

    Italy has looked to improve its rules and regulations on treatment of civilians for decades, but has fallen far short. One non-government imposed a code of conduct on operations at sea. Little positive actions came from this code of conduct. Civilians got involved in trading across the sea, and civilians died trying to cross. With a government and country that is in support of change, Italy is in approval of a resolution from the United Nations. Italy supports international initiatives for the prevention of sexual violence in conflicts and emergencies, specifically the preventing sexual violence in conflicts and calling to action the protection from gender-based violence in emergencies. Recently in September of 2017, Italy joined the “circle of leadership,” to fight against the treatment of civilians. Countries involved in this prevention are the U.K, Italy, France, and 57 others. As a state that lacks the leadership in conflict zones, Italy signed the voluntary compact, which commits the roll out the measures taken to prevent sexual abuse towards women and children. The country has also looked to improve protection for children. Some major conflict zones include schools and hospitals. Italy looks to improve the care and aid the children affected by conflict receive, and protect children during their time of education.

    Protection of civilians in conflict zones is an epidemic around the globe. Italy proposes that the United Nations creates a resolution, to end the conflict for women and children around the world. By reviewing the codes of conduct for every state and revising them to all be identical, this will weaken the possibilities or major conflict arising. With past experience, Italy suggests that the rules must be fluent throughout the states of the UN, to eliminate conflict between civilians and the government. Italy would like to create a stricter border of rules and regulations. A resolution will protect civilians in conflict zones, and will improve the overall safety and wellbeing, of our civilians.

  • Carolinags
    Carolinags November 13, 2018 Reply

    COUNTRY: China
    COMMITTEE: DISEC
    NAME: Carolina González Suástegui
    SCHOOL: Instituto Educativo Olinca

    TOPIC A: PROTECTING CIVILIANS IN CONFLICT ZONES

    The protection of civilians in conflict zones is an issue of great importance, since it is happening all around the world and is constantly creating an imminent impact in the lives of thousands of people that live throughout these armed conflicts.

    Aware of the situation, China, although in its territory there aren ́t being held any armed conflicts currently, is determined to find a solution to the problem. It has already iniciated a plan in order to protect civilians all around the world, and since China firmly believes that the best way to protect civilians is to avoid conflict in the first place, it consists of the implementation of more and better peacekeeping measures. For example China is the country that provides the biggest number of troops for the peacekeeping program imparted by the UN, and is the second biggest financial contributor for the UN ́s peacekeeping programs. It has already conducted and supported peacekeeping operations; one of which was made in Dafur, an armed conflict zone in Sudan, while it also registered 8,000 peacekeeping troops which the UN can draw on in times of need. Furthermore it has provided the UN with equipment of high quality in order to make the goals of the programs achievable and has trained thousands of peacekeepers both national and foreign.

    In order to solve the problem China considers that it is vital to have the cooperation of all the international community, but it is still important to emphasize that it is the responsibility of each government to protect its own civilians. Taking this into acount, China proposes the following solutions: All parties to any conflict should respect international humanitarian law; any act in armed conflict that violates it should be investigated and punished by the country concerned according to its law. In the case that this was not followed by said government it will be approached by an international court and the parties involved will we persecuted for war crimes. It also believes that it is important that the international community raises awareness of the fact that we are in a community with a shared future as humankind. In that way we can create a peaceful and stable international environment and obtain global governance that will permit the members gathered here to solve the problems more efficiently.

    China is willing to convince the countries that it is advisable to organize against this important problem to achive all what has been established before, and in such a way that the aforementioned problem is solved. Moreover assistance and support to the civilians of those countries which are going through conflicts at the moment will be provided.

  • Benschneider518
    Benschneider518 November 13, 2018 Reply

    DISEC
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Egypt
    Ben Schneider

    Over the past few decades, conflict has transitioned from battlefield combat isolated from the battlefield to fighting not defined by boundaries. This has resulted in both accidental and purposeful civilian casualties as a result of this close proximity to conflict. Children are also sensitive to violence, and this exposure can have a great effect on them as an adult, and women can become victims of sexual assault as a result of this conflict. As we saw in Syria, conflict can also create a large influx of refugees fleeing the war into the neighboring countries, which can have a substantial impact on those countries. The UN must find a way to protect civilians in conflict zones as well as make sure that those solutions are enforced and implemented.

    Throughout its conflict with Sinai, Egyptian soldiers have not shown a great regard for the lives of the civilians who are caught in the crossfire. Over three thousand civilians have been killed in the fighting and people have reported seeing Egyptians soldiers killing unarmed civilians they deem harmful, and nearly three thousand more have been killed in Egypt without a court order. Egypt’s counterterrorism efforts domestically and abroad have also been marked with extrajudicial killings that the the soldiers sometimes brag about on social media, and there are little to no consequences for these deplorable actions.

    Many UN resolutions have been made regarding the protection of civilians in conflict zones. The first resolution to condemn the targeting of civilians by either side of the conflict and to consider how peacekeeping operations must be addressed was Resolution 1265. This article condemned “the deliberate targeting of civilians in situations of armed conflict as well as attacks on objects protected under international law, and calls on all parties to put an end to such practices.” It was created to try to make sure that conflict occurs between soldiers, and that it doesn’t spread to civilians in a significant way.

    Egypt believes that civilians should be protected from harm when mandated, and good solutions include combating the illegal arms trade that allows this conflict to occur and preventing the use of nuclear and chemical weaponry. All states must follow UN Resolutions on the matter, and humanitarian organizations and “ protection of civilians under imminent threat of physical violence remains the primary responsibility of each country”. However, the military must be able to perform its function of combating the enemy when necessary

    Works Cited
    1. Abdelaziz, Maged. “Statement to the Security Council.” Security Council. Security Council, 9 Nov. 2011, General Assembly.
    2. SCR. “UN Documents for Protection of Civilians: Security Council Resolutions.” Security Council Report, Security Council Report, 24 May 2018, http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/un-documents/search.php?IncludeBlogs=10&limit=15&tag=%22Security%2BCouncil%2BResolutions%22%2BAND%2B%22Protection%2Bof%2BCivilians%22&ctype=Protection%2Bof%2BCivilians&rtype=Security%2BCouncil%2BResolutions&cbtype=protection-of-civilians.
    3. Webster. “Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones – GLICA.” The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association, GLICA, 4 Aug. 2018, http://www.glica.org/protecting-civilians-in-conflict-zones/.

  • DonutOmega
    DonutOmega November 13, 2018 Reply

    Jack Hanley, Mattawan High School
    Nigeria
    DISEC: Protecting Civilians In Conflict Zones

    Civilians have been an unnecessary casualties of wars, and acts of violence for too long. Protection of civilians is a topic of great importance to many countries, especially those with refugee influxes and those with civilians at risk. Civilian protection as a necessity has grown exponentially as terrorist organizations have begun utilizing guerilla tactics to provide a more damaging effect on the countries they oppose. Protection of people, especially women and children in conflict zones has been less than what an international standard for protection should be. Action needs to be taken to stop the injustice that is seen on such a wide international spectrum. Attacks on civilians force people out of their homes in forced displacement, it provides sexual violence for the aggressors when targeting civilians, it demands for children to be dragged out of their homes and be conscripted as child soldiers, mass killings of people indiscriminately, people starving due to lack of resources, and ways to provide them with such.
    Civilians are targeted as hostages and martyrs for terrorist groups across the globe. One of those terrorist groups, Boko Haram, has set its focus on Nigeria. Nigerian terrorism has been a problem for more than sixteen years. Boko Haram has been causing trouble for the Nigerian people in Borno and Yobe, by kidnapping, killing, bombing, and destroying Nigerian people, buildings, cities, and vehicles. Boko Haram even went so far as to bomb the UN headquarters set in Nigeria. Nigeria has had a large number of people in conflict zones and has been doing everything in its power to keep the citizens affected by terror attacks and civilian brutality at a minimum but there is a limit to what a government can do for its citizens without taking action. Nigeria cannot face the threat of civilian protection without also facing the threat of what causes the attacks and danger for its citizens.
    The solution to the problem dealing with protecting civilians in conflict zones is a simple one, find a way to eliminate the conflict zones. So long as terror exists, civilians will not be safe, no matter how far from a conflict zone they may manage to flee, the easiest solution, the best solution is to find a way to eradicate the causes to the conflict zones in the first place. Keeping people safe in not only a requirement but a necessity, but how can we hope to keep our citizens safe from danger when danger lives within the minds of people as a whole? Wiping out the monsters who choose to target civilians in the first place is the best solution to keep citizens safe in the first place. The easiest way for the problem to be solved is to dig it up at its roots, and fight the problem of protecting people by fighting against the danger civilians need protection of in the first place.

  • AlexanderGarcia
    AlexanderGarcia November 13, 2018 Reply

    Submitted to: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Federal Republic of Somalia
    Alexander Garcia

    The Federal Republic of Somalia is currently engaged in a conflict against the extremist terrorist group al-Shabaab. Al-Shabaab has engaged in many atrocities, such as arbitrarily executing innocent Somali civilians, stoning women to death over allegations of adultery, attacking our capital city with car bombs, and assassinating many of our government officials. As a result of this conflict, some civilians have been caught in the crossfire, leading to many unfortunate deaths.
    Somalia has cooperated with UN inquiries on its conduct in the conflict, allowing international observers to inspect prisons and collect data pertaining to casualties, and to the best of its ability, has held itself to a high ethical standard. However, al-Shabaab has not allowed international observers into the territory it illegally occupies, and has continued murdering civilians and engaging in terrorist activities, in blatant violation of international law.
    The actions of al-Shabaab, and other groups around the world who choose to attack the rightful governments of their nations show that they do not feel that they are accountable to directions or oversight from the UN and have no remorse in committing needless, reprehensible acts of violence. They will support no evacuation of civilians nor will they stop the atrocities. Therefore, the best way to mitigate civilian casualties in conflicts between a legitimate government and an insurgent group (which most topical conflicts are) is to support government forces against the insurgents. Somalia holds that the committee should recommend providing financial, and if necessary, Security Council-backed military support to governments defending themselves against insurgencies.

  • AlexShier
    AlexShier November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Republic of Poland
    Delegate: Alex Shier

    From the first clash of civilizations thousands of years ago, to the meat grinders of the World Wars, civilian have always been caught in the crossfire. Innocent people, who happen to be in the wrong place at the wrong time continue to die even today, sometimes in the thousands in conflicts around the world like Syria and Yemen. As war has become more mechanized, fast moving and expensive, one thing has never changed: civilians die.

    There has been a rise in civilian casualties in the last 30 years, more as a result of increasing terror attacks, than routine conventional war. There were 62 attacks in 2001, and in 2017, there were more than 1000. This dramatic rise in civilian deaths from terrorism stems mostly from the conflicts in the Middle East, particularly in Iraq and Syria. Increasing radicalism among European nations that have become bastions for refugees are also part of this growing problem. Poland is a participant in the Global War on Terror, and has deployed soldiers to Iraq and Afghanistan in order to engage terrorists wherever they hide.

    With respect to the unfettered killing in Syria, Poland has staked out a clear position. We support the ceasefires like we saw in the Idlib Province earlier this year which allowed for the evacuation of civilians, and the prevention a massacre. As the Polish foreign minister has stated: “We want to look for ways of ending this conflict [Syria], of holding those who use chemical weapons and other WMD’s accountable, and of making sure that Syria’s civilian population is protected”(1). We believe that this vision can be projected onto other conflicts around the globe. First we must halt the fighting for a time, and if that cannot be done, then we should hold those who commit war crimes accountable (including killing civilians), and ensure that they are not harmed under any circumstances.

    During our time here in committee, Poland will support resolutions that first and foremost quiets the guns. We believe that in order to prevent civilian casualties to the greatest of our abilities, we recommend a temporary ceasefire in regions that need them, in order to evacuate civilians. Second, an increase in private donations to conflict-torn regions is needed, without the money passing through the hands of a government. If this body wishes to accomplish something meaningful around the world, then these steps must be taken within a resolution.

    Citations:
    (1) “Poland to Look for Ways to End Conflict in Syria: FM.” Polskie Radio Dla Zagranicy, 27 Apr. 2018, http://www.thenews.pl/1/10/Artykul/360869,Poland-to-look-for-ways-to-end-conflict-in-Syria-FM.

  • Le-D
    Le-D November 14, 2018 Reply

    Dan Le
    Disarming and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Peru
    Grand Rapids City High

    The protection of civilian life is important no matter what the situation is. Since 1980, Peru has had to deal with the Communist Party of Peru (a.k.a. Shining Path, CPC-SL) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. Although the death toll has declined since 2000, attacks still happen regularly within the Peru. The life lost at the hands of the Shining Path and the TARM is devastating. The trouble with assisting with the removal potential victims is that there is not a defined conflict zone in the borders. Given the position that Peru is in, it is very difficult to properly defend humanitarian aid facilities.

    Peru proposes increased security for facilities and added pressure to terrorist groups. Every country should in some way assist in the protection of civilians, so a systematic network of humanitarian aid should be set in place.

  • avatar image
    Nathan Weller November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Mexico
    Nathan Weller

    In countries all around the world, including middle eastern countries, african countries, and countries in the Americas, there is constant conflict which puts civilians in danger. Many of these conflicts occur in cities where civilians of these countries live. These fights put these innocent civilians at risk of getting injured or even dying. In fact, worldwide, millions of civilians are targeted for violence in violence-affected areas. In 2017, the United Nations recorded the death and/or injury of over 26,000 civilians in just six countries, including Iraq and Afghanistan, which is responsible for 10,000 of those deaths/injuries alone. The protection of these civilians in conflict zones has become a major world issue, one that must be addressed by the United Nations, as it is a major and important step in creating sustainable peace.

    In certain parts of Mexico there is horrific of violence, especially with the constantly-waging wars between drug cartels. These conflicts can be dangerous to civilians, which is a major issue. The country of Mexico, in order to make efforts towards ensuring the safety of its people, has recently declared a war on organized crime, and has taken actions such as arrests and deploying forces to conflicted areas. Further, in 2009, Mexico signed UN Security Council resolution 1894, which dealt with increased protection for civilians in conflict zones. Mexico also both signed and ratified Protocol III of the Geneva Conventions, which also helps to expand humanitarian efforts to deal with civilians in armed conflict. There are many different humanitarian groups who give aid to civilians in conflict, and Mexico is in support of these efforts to work towards establishing more peace and safety in the world.

    Mexico believes that the United Nations should continue to support humanitarian efforts for supporting and giving aid to civilians in armed conflicts. Mexico proposes that the United Nations expand peacekeeping missions to conflicted cities in countries where civilians are in danger in order to evacuate civilians efficiently and safely. Further, the United Nations should establish shelters for refugees leaving conflict zones, as well as offer methods of bringing said refugees to places of safety along with supplying them with medical care. Unconflicted countries should donate funds in order to provide refugee camps with food, water, and other necessities. Mexico proposes that mass attacks, including air strikes on conflicted cities shall be outlawed.

  • Sydneyconnors
    Sydneyconnors November 14, 2018 Reply

    Republic of India – Sydney Connors
    Royal Oak High School
    Disarmament and International Security (DISEC) – Topic A:
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones

    As our global family persists and develops through the twenty-first century, conflict zones and their implications on the lives of civilians expose the imperfections in the order of societies. Often the breakdown of social structures leaves citizens, especially marginalized social groups, exposed to increased volume and frequency of violence. A society, a culture, is built by its citizens, and it is the duty of the sovereign entities gathered in this body to protect the right to life of our civilians. The United Nations is our global platform to plan solutions and route maps to make the world a better place, and in DISEC we explore and seek cohesive, representative solutions in the hopes of maintaining international peace and security.

    The Republic of India is no stranger to violent conflict, nor chronic conflict. We are also no stranger to the protection of civilians within conflict zones. As part of our UN Mission, India has protected numerous citizens over the course of decades, and we continue to demonstrate the will to do so. The High Commissioner for Human Rights gave our state an A rating in compliance with the Paris Principle, a rating we value and continue to pursue. Our primary concerns with the facets of this issue lie in enhancing the UN’s Peacekeeping operations, enhancing compliance by non-state actors, enhancing accountability for violations of existing civilian protections, and improving humanitarian access. The architecture of resolutions which build protections for civilians is immense, but the failure of effective implementation of these devices have continued to expose thousands of civilians to targeted attacks by armed groups. This body must not allow idle action to collapse the influence of this institution. The United Nations has the potential to bring forth the full force of a mobilized global populations.

    Beginning in the 1990’s the Security Council made civilian conflict casualty a primary concern. The most immediate and pressing question in any conflict is the flow of access to basic needs such as food, water, shelter and medical equipment. Article 25, sub-clause (1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) states that “(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.”. Oftentimes transporting these essential items where they are allocated presents a huge challenge because of the facet of non-state actors. Non-state actors are defined by the United Nations as “individuals or groups which exert influence on international relations but are wholly or partly independent of any state government”. Primarily, in the context of our issue, they add to the tumult of conflict through subversive warfare techniques such as guerilla fighting, terrorism, and by extension, the disruption of supply routes for aid. It is the threat of non-state actors which beg for the reiteration of concise operating procedures.

    Peacekeeping operations are coming under increasing attack, parallel to the trend of increase in civilian targeting. In order to effectively administer aid through UN Peacekeepers, the system of administration for those operations must be reformed. The standard operating procedures for UN operations are clear, but without a strategic directive for where we execute these operations, they will proceed with much less functionality. This committee should discuss the conditions which would define need of peacekeeping operations. With those guidelines set, the most volatile conflict zones can be targeted with our efforts. Using the same processes which protect our Peacekeepers, we can ensure the stability of humanitarian access. Formed Police Units are often used in order to safely insert Peacekeepers into conflict zones, and by modifying that procedure in order to better fit the movement of resources, we may very well begin to see a higher level of success in the supplication of these basic needs. India is proud to provide one of the highest volumes of Peacekeepers to the United Nations, and we have and will continue to support the system of international aid which has the capacity to benefit our entire globe. Countries which are able should always be willing to provide aid and support to the United Nations effort to globalize peace and prosperity.

    The accounts of violations of human rights in a conflict such as rape, slavery, and other sexually motivated crimes of war committed against civilians and combatants should be addressed with the utmost urgency and those parties involved and perpetrating the crimes should be tried for the violation of human rights as defined by the UDHR. It is crucial that countries report cases promptly to international monitoring bodies. For developing countries, this can pose a huge challenge fiscally and in terms of accessibility. This committee should seek to form or define a consistent, singular body which will receive and sort cases, assigning them to the appropriate jurisdiction. A crucial function of the United Nations is to afford justice in the case of humanitarian violations, and multiple bodies have been tasked with doing just that. Any solution which the committee decides upon must also include a system of support for developing countries in developing their prosecution in accordance with international propriety. It is important that we as nations use guidelines such as the manual on the Domestic Implementation of International Law, as per the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    Throughout all of this we must bear in mind the value of sovereignty, both in the respect of it as well as our responsibility to our own sovereign duties. We must work with impartiality, autonomy and consent of all parties, but we must also remember the necessity of this work, and open ourselves to giving and receiving aid. Non-violence is the policy of a prosperous nation, and of a prosperous world. In the event that we cannot keep our promise of peace to the people of this world, it is the responsibility of our nations to come together within this body and resolve the conflicts we face, while creating and implementing protections for our civilians which will allow for a prosperous and stable future.

  • Vonkm
    Vonkm November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Citizens in Conflict Zones
    Country: Palestine
    Madeline Vonk

    Since the beginning of time, civilians have been caught in the crossfire of conflict. The Romans salinated the land of Carthage, the Union soldiers destroyed everything in their wake as they infiltrated the South, and the United States sacrificed thousands of lives when they bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II. The problem at hand has always been present. The international community has attempted to diminish the effect of war on civilians, but much of this legislation has proven to be ineffective. It is this committee’s job to remedy that.

    Palestinians have first-hand experience with the effect conflict zones have on their daily lives especially in the Gaza Strip. In one month in 2017, Israel destroyed close to 400 homes thus displacing almost 600 civilians in order to create illegal settlements on Palestinian land. This is a common trend. In Gaza, 1.9 million people rely on humanitarian aid. Incessant clashes between Israelis and Palestinian protesters in the region lead to civilian casualties almost always including unarmed, innocent children. The human rights of Palestinians are consistently ignored by the Israeli government. The Independent Commission for Human Rights in Palestine (ICHR) received 205 complaints over the span of one month from Palestinians imprisoned in Israeli jails. Palestine understands what it is like to have civilians stuck, perpetually, in conflict zones, their human rights ceaselessly violated; because of this, Palestine desperately hopes the body will establish a comprehensive solution to the problem.

    Palestine would like the body to focus on the importance of humanitarian aid in areas suffering from conflict, for it is essential to the survival of many Palestinians in Gaza. It asks the body to look to the past and draw from resolutions that proved to be ineffective at the time and implement their best parts into a new resolution that will hopefully have a lasting effect. Palestine would like to see the body hold countries inciting conflict despite international treaties accountable. Countries like Israel and Russia continue to violate human rights and subject citizens to violence despite international agreements. This accountability will hopefully prevent conflict from occurring in the first place allowing these areas to rebuild and making it possible to wane them off of humanitarian aid. It is also essential the committee calls upon NGOs to provide specific humanitarian aid and revise current policies to aid in the security of aid members. Since every conflict is unique, the committee should work to find a happy medium between specificity and a blanket statement applicable to all civilians affected by conflict. The delegation of Palestine is sincerely hopeful a conclusion will be reached that will positively impact the lives of its own citizens along with citizens across the globe.

  • 19RectorJa
    19RectorJa November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: Republic of Moldova
    Committee: DISEC – Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Ukraine
    Delegate: Jared Rector
    School: Williamston High School

    Amidst the chaos of political uncertainty that followed Euromaidan protests against former Pro-Russian Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych, Russian soldiers stormed the Crimean Peninsula and seized all government buildings and strategic facilities (March 2014). These soldiers wore balaclavas, removed all Russian insignias, and remained silent when questioned. In less than one month after the landing, Russia hosted a fabricated referendum and annexed the Crimean Peninsula. The four year conflict that followed is still raging today. Thousands of lives have been lost, despite a multitude of ceasefires being issued. The shadow war that followed the Crimean Annexation was waged in the Donbass Region of the Ukraine, in hopes of crushing the will of Ukrainians and regaining de facto rule. The Russian soldiers openly brought the fight into densely populated areas, amassing significant civilian casualties. Officials from the Russian Federation have denied all claims of aggression. The United Nations must construct a solution to this conflict to protect Ukrainian sovereignty.
    The Republic of Moldova believes that it is imperative to bring an end to this crisis. We maintain relations with both the Ukraine and the Russian Federation. While more than 20% of our exports go to Russia, our Parliament consists of a pro-EU coalition, and we believe close relations with the Ukraine is necessary to combat any alleged Russian aggression. The Republic of Moldova and the Ukraine have sustained inter-governmental institutions such as the Ukraine-Moldova Commission for Trade and Economic Cooperation, which serves to promote our economic and security interests.
    While President Igor Dodon’s statements on terminating the Association Agreement with the European Union, The Republic of Moldova wishes to assure that the President is unable to unilaterally make such decisions for the country. The Republic of Moldova would look favorably upon a ceasefire agreement similar to Minsk I and Minsk II, however with increased enforcement mechanisms. Our economy cannot sustain the hit that would follow sanctions imposed on Russia, but would approve funding to OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to collect information regarding ceasefire violations.

  • 19RectorJa
    19RectorJa November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: Republic of Moldova
    Committee: DISEC – Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: Jared Rector
    School: Williamston High School

    All throughout human history, the Earth has been pervaded with conflict. And while many combatants have fell victim to conflict, the majority of casualties have been innocent civilians. Not all casualties have been collateral damage, however. In many instances, non-combatants are targeted in acts of total war or terrorism. In recent history, the Syrian Regime, for example, targeted their civilians with gas attacks, while the international theatre watched in awe, mouths agape. Healthcare providers in conflict zones are targeted to maximize damage. A Security Council Resolution was passed in 2016 with the intention to stem the attacks on hospitals, to little avail. Violence towards non-combatants is entirely unacceptable, and more action must be done to protect civilians in conflict zones.
    One year after its Declaration of Independence, The Republic of Moldova engaged Russian-backed Transnistrian separatists. On March 2, 1992, the first Moldovan president authorized the attack on Transnistrian separatists in order to defend the integrity and and independence of Moldova. On the same date, The Republic of Moldova was admitted to the United Nations. With a lack of military, legal authorities and volunteers were forced to defend our sovereignty. Civilian casualties were no stranger to this conflict, and securities were implemented to prevent such a catastrophe from happening again. The National Security Council is responsible for administering and monitoring the reformation process of the national security sector, monitoring, controlling and supervising in the national security system, identifying the national security priorities, adopting the recommendations on allocation of necessary resources in order to cope with the threats to the national security, and coordinating the activities in case of urgency or crisis.
    Given its national interests, as well as the commitments that derive from the European integration policy, the Republic of Moldova shall guide itself by the following national security guidelines: restoration of the territorial integrity of the state, withdrawal of foreign military presence on its territory, consolidation of its independence and statehood; upkeep the dynamics of the European integration processes and deepen the relations with NATO, develop cooperation with the EU and NATO member states; plenary development and exploration of the human potential, the main resource of the country; efficient protection of human rights and interests of Moldovan citizen at home and abroad; consolidation of the national military security; and participation of the Republic of Moldova to the efforts of the strengthening the international security. The targeting of civilians and healthcare centers in conflict zones is extremely unacceptable, and the Republic of Moldova believes that any government found intentionally targeting non-combatants and hospitals should be prosecuted, and punished accordingly. The Republic of Moldova would look favorably upon a resolution that increases protection for civilians in times of conflict.

  • Gmanv2012
    Gmanv2012 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Ukraine
    Gaurang P. Vaidya

    The world is plagued with war, whether in Afghanistan, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Syria, Yemen, Myanmar, North Korea, Ukraine, etc. Countries are involved in warfare to fight for their rights, freedoms, property, and country. The following are the main reasons countries engage in conflict: economic gain, territorial gain, religion, nationalism, revenge, civil wars, revolutionary wars, defensive wars.(1) At least 108 million people were killed in armed conflicts in the 20th century(2). In just 2017, warfare has displaced 16.2 million people.(3) Many countries have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity for the furtherment of their ideologies or interests; in particular, Russia has a long history of committing war crimes. Currently, Putin has engaged in attacks against civilians in Yemen, Syria, Ukraine, and even his own people.(4) Ukraine urges the Disarmament and International Security committee to end such terror through deliberate suggestions, to protect innocent civilians, humanitarian aid workers, and to encourage the Security Council to enforce crimes against humanity that were committed. Ukraine has lost more than ten thousand civilians and combatants due to the unnecessary and atrocious war that the Russian Federation has waged upon the Ukrainian people living in Crimea; this has put Ukrainian sovereignty at risk. The death and abuse of civilians in conflict regions has surfaced all around the globe which is a significant concern. It must be stopped and met with adamant enforcement. Ukraine urges this committee to work swiftly to protect innocent people’s livelihoods.

    As a nation that is currently involved in a detrimental war, Ukraine understands the importance of protecting its civilians. In past years, Ukraine has encouraged civilian protection, such as recommendations to citizens to avoid conflict regions such as Crimea and Donetsk within Ukraine. Ukraine has and will take all necessary measures to guarantee human and citizen rights and freedoms provided for by the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine and by international treaties to all citizens of Ukraine. Ukraine has also supported the Security Council Resolution 2286 during its non-permanent membership of Security Council in 2015. The resolution passed unanimously and was implemented. Understanding that the resolution has proven to be weak; this committee must focus and build upon the recent Security Council Resolution 2417 (2018). This resolution condemns the use of starvation of civilians as methods of warfare and urges the protection of civilian infrastructure critical for humanitarian aid.(5) This resolution will help protect the millions of people displaced in Syria, Yemen, and Ukraine due to civilian targeting by Russia. This resolution allows the Disarmament and International Security committee one step closer to the goal ― preventing civilian, other humanitarian and health care personnel casualties. Ukraine has also taken great strides in protecting its civilians from casualties and will continue to do so. Ukraine encourages all parties involved in conflicts to prioritize the protection of civilians and offer practical recommendations and expertise on ways to defeat the rampant problem.

    Ukraine proposes that the Disarmament and International Security committee address the weaknesses of Resolution 2286 and work on other measures to strengthen it. Ukraine proposes to the Disarmament and International Security Committee to reevaluate and strengthen Resolution 2286 by ensuring that all parties act on the agreement instated and encourages consequences overseen ― by the Security Council ― for all parties that do not act upon it. Measures to strengthen Resolution 2286 include, avoiding explosive weapons in densely populated areas – such as airstrikes in Yemen – ensuring the protection of civilians, humanitarian and healthcare personnel, preventing casualties to aid workers, such as the more than 600 experienced in 2017.(6) Furthermore suggests, providing better protection for displaced people within their own country and respecting international human and humanitarian rights and laws. Finally, Ukraine urges for this committee to be diligent in its efforts as it is a pending issue in many countries including Ukraine.

    Ukraine looks forward to working with delegations of all countries to create a thorough resolution that will encompass the needs of every nation and lead to a process of peace, prosperity, and protection for the people of the world.

    1) https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/The-Main-Reasons-For-War
    2) https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html
    3) http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/news/press/2018/6/5b27c2434/forced-displacement-above-68m-2017-new-global-deal-refugees-critical.html
    4) https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/russias-been-waging-war-on-the-west-for-at-least-a-decade-we-just-havent-noticed/2018/03/15/83926c78-2875-11e8-bc72-077aa4dab9ef_story.html?utm_term=.08fdcc58f6b6
    5) https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/sc13354.doc.html
    6) https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/statement/2018-05-22/secretary-generals-remarks-security-council-protection-civilians

  • Bellabouma111
    Bellabouma111 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Singapore Position Paper on Protecting civilians in conflict zones

    Committee:DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in conflict zones
    Country: Singapore
    Name: Bella Bouma
    School: Forest Hills Northern

    As we all know there has been an ongoing debate on how to most effectively protect civilians in conflict zones. There has never been a great solution formed for this issue. The main people affected by this are the women and children in these conflict zones. Women are targeted in sexual ways and as war tools. Children are at the risk of becoming child soldiers and malnourished. Singapore recognises that every country follows some type of guidelines or rules for protecting civilians, but these ways are not effective. The NS act of 1967 made it mandatory that every 18 year old or permanent resident of Singapore has to undergo military training. This act was put in place so that the civilians and the military leaders came from the same background. Singapore believes that we all need to be following the same rules and guidelines for this issue to ever be resolved. We need to help the children and women of these poor countries so our world doesn’t fall apart. Singapore is open to many solutions, but we believe that these solutions must be enforced in a strong manner.

  • 20glynnjo
    20glynnjo November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: Bangladesh
    Committee: DISEC
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: Josh Glynn

    As members of the Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC), we must focus upon maintaining peace across the world while also harnessing our resources to prevent weapon proliferation. The problem at hand is dealing with refugees from worn-torn countries. Syria for example, is currently the country with the most citizens fleeing for safety with 6.6 million refugees. This large number has accumulated over the past seven years due to the raging war in Syria. Afghanistan has the second-largest refugee population of 2.6 million while South Sudan comes in third with 2.4 million refugees. These nations are enduring political conflicts and the citizens are not safe living among guerilla-styled warfare. Their only option is to flee unless we can craft a solution to protect the rights of these civilians in conflict zones. If we cannot do this, we must at least admit them into our countries for the time-being.

    Bangladesh takes this issue very seriously and we would like to provide whatever help and resources we can. Despite the fact that our economy has been growing by about six percent per year, we are still facing financial issues within our country. We recently received 700,000 refugees from Burma into our country. This has placed immense pressure on our government’s budget, dampening our hopes in revitalizing the economy. Our country’s rice supply (which already declined due to recent flooding) has also suffered from the refugees which further weakened the Bangladesh economy. Taking this into account, it becomes quite clear that we cannot provide financial support nor admit refugees into our country.

    Although we cannot supply these countries with any direct assistance, we would be willing to support plans by other countries. We would like to see wealthier and more powerful nations craft a plan to allocate a sum of money for the refugees or admit them into their countries as citizens. As far as action that can be taken within these war ravaged countries, we recommend that UN peacekeepers be deployed to these areas. Specifically, they should be placed near healthcare centers as healthcare workers have become too afraid to help people and the civilians themselves are too scared to seek the medical attention they need. Bangladesh encourages the imposition of warnings to the conflict zones – the UN will not tolerate their actions that have caused millions of innocent people to suffer. If they contravene our order, they will endure the consequences that we have warned them of. Bangladesh greatly understands the extent of this issue. We hope that the rest of the UN takes this matter as seriously as we do. Together, we must exert our best effort in protecting these citizens and their rights as it is our duty to sustain peace across the world.

  • AGR911
    AGR911 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Republic of the Sudan
    Alan Garrett Raterink

    The ever-changing nature of warfare has continued to allow militant fighters to expand their reach beyond their typical territorial boundaries, and therefore affect a far greater number of civilians, increasing the collateral damage during wartime. Protecting civilians in conflict zones is especially pertinent/applicable to the Republic of the Sudan, and we stand steadfast in this view, given the amount of UN humanitarian aid taking place within our own borders. As stated by the World Policy Organization, “The international community has failed to effectively respond to the genocide in Darfur, which so far has claimed the lives of some 400,000 people, displaced around 3 million (the exact number is debated), and forced an additional 400,000 to flee across the border into Chad.”

    Humanitarian aid to people in conflict zones is pertinent to Sudan, especially regarding the conflict in Darfur. The Republic of the Sudan is committed to maintaining control of the Darfur region (which seeks to secede from Sudan) at all costs, and has unfortunately experienced some collateral damage when doing so. We take high priority in protecting civilians with our overlaying military goals against the upset caused by the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement rebel groups. Our government has allocated limited resources to those facing humanitarian issues in Darfur. Additionally, we argue that the humanitarian crisis is perpetuated by others like Egypt. As stated by our president, “The army and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) have seized Egyptian armored vehicles used by the Darfur rebels in their attack [on May 20, 2017] on the two states,” al-Bashir told a ceremony honoring retired army officers Tuesday in Khartoum, referring to Libya and South Sudan. He pointed out that the rebel forces came from Libya and South Sudan aboard Egyptian armored vehicles. Our president noted in May, 2017, that Egypt refused to support his country in its long fighting against the insurgency in South Sudan and Darfur, pointing to Sudan’s support for Egypt during its 1967 and 1973 wars against Israel. Sudan has made limited efforts in the humanitarian front. The government of Sudan signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement to end the second of two civil wars, which began in 1983. It also outlined a timetable for a referendum to the southern part of Sudan to decide to secede from Sudan, in which it did in 2011. In a public statement regarding the implementation of the CPA, al-Bashir said, “the office of the Guarantor [president of north Sudan] of the ceasefire will announce any skirmishes or provocations that might occur and shall name and shame the perpetrators to face their ethical and legal responsibilities before the people of the Republic of South Sudan and before the regional and international community.” Although Sudan is part of the UN (who addresses these issues), Sudan is mostly a nation in need of assistance in this issue and cannot contribute to the cessation of humanitarian blunders. Since the World Bank’s re-engagement in Sudan in 2005, the it has managed various development activities through the Sudan Multi-Donor Trust Fund (superseded by the The Sudan Multi-Partner Fund, or SMPF), comprising $240 million from 10 donors, including the World Bank Group, which was accompanied by $350 million in parallel financing from the Government of Sudan. The Sudan Multi-Partner Fund, or SMPF (superseding the Sudan Multi-Donor Trust Fund), is also administered by the World Bank, enjoying financial support from UKAid and Norway, and is the only multi-donor trust fund in Sudan concerned with the national development agenda. This includes food, education, and displacement assistance.

    At this point, and given the situation in Darfur, the international community is free to help those in humanitarian crises in the midst of our military campaign. Though it may not be in our special interest, we encourage the world to continue to reduce the collateral damage as a result of other instigators of the situation in Darfur, in particular. The global efforts should take place in the form of displaced-peoples assistance, food assistance, and shelter if that is your prerogative. Considerable progress has been made on the humanitarian front with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, ending a 21 year civil war, but much is yet to be resolved in Darfur by the international community. We encourage the UN to help mitigate tension between the North and South regarding support of insurgent groups, prevent the movement of arms into and out of Darfur and insurgent groups across international lines, and call for the end of opposition groups in both countries.To protect the union of a nation that has already experienced a secession of the south, the UN should encourage others to help maintain the integrity of our borders by simmering the revolutionary tendencies of those in Darfur.

  • Hannahheemstra
    Hannahheemstra November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    State of Kuwait
    Hannah Heemstra

    Protecting at risk civilian populations is a topic that has been ongoing for years. Attacks against civilians flaw the idea of long-lasting peace causing around 128 million people in need of humanitarian aid. The sickening welfare of these people has been largely ignored, while little action has been taken in their defense. For example, UN Security Council Resolution 2286 (2016) addressing the protection of healthcare workers, has not been accomplished or properly implemented. Healthcare workers are still facing attacks, which caused colossal damage. The civilians are affected in the way of, workers are not willing to come to give aid and discourage vulnerable individuals from seeking much need medical help. These issues remain vital questions that our committee of Disarmament and International Security must put an end to. Furthermore, the United Nations has followed through on actions to protect the civilians in conflict zones.

    The nation of Kuwait is concerned that terrorist attacks and conflict zones will push into the country, given the regional neighbors, Iran, Syria, Yemen and Afghanistan struggle a refugee crisis. Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al Sabah our Prime Minister spoke during the general assembly in September 2017; He voiced supported international counter-terrorism actions such as rebuild and to allow refugees to return home to Iraq. He emphasized that parties of conflict must come together to hold disquisitions aimed at finding a peaceful political settlement. In 2015 Kuwait hosted the donor conference raising hundreds of millions of pledges for Syrian people in a rising tide of militancy and conflict. Furthermore, the action went into place to help Palestine refugees after a donation of fifteen million. The generosity did not stop there, in 2016 Kuwait has contributed six million dollars to support Palestine refugees in Syria as long with medicine to help refugees in Lebanon.

    The State of Kuwait proposes that the Security Council increase in protection forces in conflict zones. With additional forces in areas where terrorist attacks are likely to occur. In doing this the State of Kuwait hopes that health care workers will begin to return and give aid to the secured civilian populations. Another proposal that Kuwait brings to the table is to engage with the non-state actors in an effort to increase buy-in from reasonable regional power brokers. Many of these groups are the real power if the United Nations can bargain with them to set standards, an example of this is the Taliban in Afghanistan and revolutionary forces in Columbia. The State of Kuwait would encourage this committee to secure the safety of civilians.

  • William_Mester
    William_Mester November 14, 2018 Reply

    Submitted to: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    From: The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
    Subject: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: William Mester

    The citizens of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are among some of the best-protected citizens in the world. We believe that we are a role model for the protection of our civilians as we have minimal internal conflict. This is not true of other countries, unfortunately. Civilians worldwide must never be exposed to conflict that has the potential to harm them. This takes place in many areas and in many ways.

    How can we ensure nations are preventing harm towards civilians? How can we also protect national sovereignty at the same time? A good resolution will address these concerns. The resolution should lay out a comprehensive plan that will take action on those nations who let violence happen to other nations citizens. We must also take international law into consideration when we craft a resolution. Security Council Resolution 2286 is a good start but has proven to be ineffective. Is it our duty to create a resolution that will actually be effective in reducing casualties of civilians.

    The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea looks forward to working collaboratively to create a solution to this problem that is effective in its actions and respectful and beneficial to many nations.

  • MiaTepic
    MiaTepic November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Pakistan
    Mia Tepic

    With conflict zones growing at an alarming pace, the safety and security of civilians continues to be a pivotal issue. Newly developed warfare and counterinsurgency appears to be changing the landscape of battlefields. No longer are civilians watching from the sidelines, but they are involved and affected by the conflict. Humanitarian aids, volunteers, and peacekeepers experience extreme dangers and risks while working their jobs. Due to situations experienced in the 1990s in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, the UN has placed civilian protection on their agenda. Just this year, the Iraq War had 2700 civilian casualties, and the number is continuing to grow. For Pakistan, the topic of civilian protection is extremely important as wars and attacks have taken place in the country for the past decade. Over 61,000 civilians have been directly killed since the beginning of the war. Another 800,000 deaths are reported to have been killed from indirect results of the wars. Therefore, it is extremely important for Pakistan to improve on the protection of civilians, humanitarian aids, peacekeepers, and volunteers not just in Pakistan, but around the world.

    As a country who experienced a decade of terrorism attacks, Pakistan understands the importance of civilians on the battlefield. According to Our World in Data, 861 terrorism incidents were confirmed in the country in 2016. Just recently, Pakistan mourned the loss of 149 lives due to the country’s second deadliest terror attack. Some of these deaths and injuries have been caused by people being used as a human shield. In April of 2017, Farooq Ahmed Dar, an artisan, was tied to the back of a jeep by soldiers and used as a human shield against stone pelters. Although Pakistan accepted 18.8 billion dollars from the US in 2002 to 2016, it believes that many of these atrocities and dangers are caused by inadequate countries not addressing the issue. As one of the world’s leading contributor of troops, Pakistan has proudly performed the task of protecting civilians in other parts of the world including in missions in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, and the Central African Republic. They have voiced their concern with the UN Security Council, and they are working to better provide protection for civilians around the world. Mahalia Lodhi, permanent representative of Pakistan to the UN, said in May of 2017, “We underscore the critical importance of troops contributing countries not only in the formation of mandates, but also in their implementation, review, renewal or change, especially in case of rapid deterioration of the ground situation.”

    Pakistan recommends that in order to better protect civilians and humanitarian aids in conflict zones, the Disarmament and International Security Committee must first prevent the outbreak of armed conflicts. It also recommends for the prioritization of protection of civilians in UN peacekeeping missions. Parties to an armed conflict must also ensure an unimpeded passage and sustained humanitarian access to things like hospitals, which have become a target rather than a sanctuary. In a country traumatized by war and terror attacks, Pakistan fully understands the impact of civilian casualties. It understands the damage it can do to a family, a community, and a country. Therefore, it would like to see the international committee as a whole effectively work to resolve this calamitous issue and protect civilians. It strongly recommends the UN to not only protect civilians in its country, but around the world.

  • JoeRosenthal
    JoeRosenthal November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protection of Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Uruguay
    Joe Rosenthal

    Historically, the need for humanitarian aid has been caused by conflict more than any other potential cause. Armed conflict that has not been resolved, or poorly resolved, often lead to situations in which humanitarian aid is necessary. This was the case in the beginning of international organized humanitarian aid concerning the abandonment of soldiers at the Battle of Solferino, a battle between France and Austria under the rule of Napoleon. This issue remains pivotal, and is the the question of our committee of Disarmament and International Security must address. In order for peace and prosperity for all, the public must be kept safe, and it is up to the decision of the United Nations to to determine the most effective way to do so.

    As a country that has dealt with guerilla movements within its borders, Uruguay understands the need for humanitarian aid in conflict zones, as a means of improving the quality of life of the citizens. Due to a military coup, a guerilla movement appeared, uprooting the government and putting the public’s safety in danger. Furthermore, Uruguay encourages the United Nations to become involved in these situations, whenever they may arise. Uruguay had first sent a peacekeeping battalion into Asia as part of the UN Transitional Authority to Cambodia, and it has been the first of many. At this date, approximately 25% of Uruguay’s military force is fully committed to United Nations peacekeeping missions every year. It is crucial for the general well being of society and the people that they are protected, even in times of conflict, as the people of Uruguay know well. Uruguay strongly encourages the United Nations to take immediate action in regard to the situations presently concerning civilians in conflict zones.

    Uruguay proposes that the United Nations intervene in conflict zones as to protect the civilians stuck within the conflict zones, and to accomplish this, to send in peacekeeping battalions. In a country that is well aware of the negative effects of humanitarian struggles, Uruguay knows firsthand the importance of safety in a country. Uruguay recommends the United Nations send in peacekeeping battalions wherever it deems fit. The issue of protecting citizens in conflict zones is imperative to keeping the peace, and it is crucial to carry out this duty, and that the most effective way to do so is to institute peacekeeping missions whenever appropriate.

  • Rreddy825
    Rreddy825 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
    Rohan Reddy

    According to UN Ambassador Nazifullah Salarzai, 2,903 civilian deaths and over 6,000 civilian injuries occurred as a result of enemy attacks nationwide, mainly on civilian targets, in the last year alone. UN Secretary-General António Guterres calls upon the UN to create policies to protect civilians in conflict zones.

    As a country that has noticed a large number of civilian deaths and injuries in conflict zones, Afghanistan understands the importance of the protection of civilians and the devastating long-term consequences for civilians and has taken actions to fight this. In October 2017, The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan endorsed the National Policy on Civilian Casualty Prevention and Mitigation and its implementation plan. This plan consisted of specific guidelines for our security forces to prevent and mitigate civilian casualties and harm to properties.
    The plan also strictly prohibited any use of civilian facilities such as schools, hospitals, and clinics for military purposes. Additionally, our government agencies have continued thoroughly investigate any possible violations of the provisions of the policy by any government official or agency, and take appropriate measures, as recommended in the 2017 UNAMA annual report on Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict. We have also ratified the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, including all amendments and protocols in August 2017, which will result in improved protection of civilians. Additionally, the Tawhid Center in the National Security Council has been established to maintain a database for tracking conflict-related civilian casualties, among other responsibilities. We are strongly committed to ensuring that our security forces operate within national and international laws and regulations to protect civilians during military operations. 23 percent of civilian deaths and injuries have decreased due to these, along with other, tactical and strategic measures.
    The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan proposes that the United Nations should create policies to help protect civilians in conflict zones by using The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as an example and taking steps similar to the actions of The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

  • Normanj15
    Normanj15 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Jack Norman
    Australia
    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    City High and Middle School

    Conflict during the modern day is far more commonly fought within states than it is between them. This combined with systematic and targeted violence based on race, gender or ethnicity shows a strong need for civilian protection. The idea that civilians have no place in a casualty count is not only clearly favored by the international community but also continued to an extent at which Australia finds itself appalled.
    Not only is Australia abhorred at the quantity of civilian deaths that took place in Iraq which peaked at 29,517 during 2006 but also with the numerous examples that can be seen by even the least tactful eye occurring in most modern conflict zones. This completely uncalled for and absolutely unacceptable. There is no reason that during this age of general prosperity the world should find itself in an atmosphere from which precipitates a continued disregard for innocent life for the purpose of a foreign political agenda.
    Australia understands the complicated circumstances present in the conflict zones in which civilian violence continues but cannot abide or excuse loss of civilian life for the purpose of achieving governmental aims. Australia firmly believes that states are completely responsible for the violations that take place in their borders however it does not believe that states are the sole actors present in civilian violence. For proper protection of civilians it is necessary that the government, police and civilians work together with the maximum degree of cooperation possible.
    Protection of citizens is one of the key facets of Australia’s contributions to international peace and security. Australia believes that there are several important cornerstones to be remembered when discussing POC. Australia further believes that it is integral to keep in mind the different needs of vulnerable groups. Australia holds close the idea that at risk persons each hold different needs and it is highly important that each of them receive the attention and resources required. Australia believes the three key avenues that need to be followed for proper POC are: protection through dialogue and engagement, provision of physical protection and the establishment of a protective environment.
    Moving forward within this conference Australia hopes that the DiSec committee will reaffirm an international commitment to the elimination of civilian casualties in armed conflict zones. Beyond this, Australia would implore the committee to work on a series of protocols to be followed by not only troops deployed in conflict zones but also for UN mediators.

  • Kenziekempa
    Kenziekempa November 14, 2018 Reply

    Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Czech Republic
    Kenzie Kempa

    In modern war, civilians replace soldiers as the primary targets. Children are traumatized, malnourished, or forced to become child soldiers. Women are used as tools or targets and sexually abused. Homes are destroyed. People starve, hospitals are targeted, and vulnerable citizens are constantly under attack. War affects everyone no matter age, race, or sex. An estimated 73,000 children have been killed or harmed in only 25 conflicts since 2005. One hundred and twenty-eight million people internationally are in need of help. So far, the UN is lacking in effective solutions to aiding the people in conflict zones. Approximately 500,000 children under five years old died in 1992 from armed conflict alone. Today, one in six children live in a conflict zone. For over 10 years, Al-Shabab has terrorized Somalia. They attack peacekeepers and civilians. In 2017 UNSOM reported the civilian death toll was over 2,000. 1.5 million people have been displaced.

    The Czech Republic seeks to aid countries in the process of implementing democracy or torn by conflict, issues we were once affected by. The Czech Republic is very active in peacekeeping missions and has been since 1999 after joining The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Czech Republic has been active in missions for the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Czech Republic participates in observer missions and operations under the UN security council, as well as the European Union civilian and military missions. In 2015, the Czech Republic had 21,00 active armed forces in the UN. The Czech Republic emphasizes the need for world peace in it’s national and international policy. Over 300 Czech government experts work in 19 missions across Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. In 2017, a European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine operation succeeded in obtaining illegal weapons and drugs through the Ukraine-Moldova border. The Czech Republic’s participation in European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina aided in the stability of police operations, therefore contributing to the stability of the country.

    The foundation for a stable country is sustained peace, and that starts with the safety of citizens. Even something as devastating as war requires rules. The Czech Republic calls for a zero-tolerance policy for the deliberate and indiscriminate harm of children, violators are to be subject to the International Criminal Court. The Czech Republic demands the protection humanitarian personnel so they can implement their directive. Since violence against humanitarian personnel violates international humanitarian law, offenders must be sought out and held strictly accountable by The International Criminal Court. The UN needs to collectively recognize the importance of organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and understand they are independent and neutral; this is the only way civilians can be saved. Above all, the United Nations need to stop conflicts before civilians are hurt by continuing to expand our peacekeeping reach by contributing more troops to more unstable areas.

  • Hariskljuvic
    Hariskljuvic November 14, 2018 Reply

    Protecting civilians is a founding idea of the United Nations. The United Nations would constantly provide aid and protect civilians in war zones all over the world. The United Nation would commit to its first peacekeeping mission in 1948 in the State of Israel and Palestine. Nevertheless, as throughout history the type of warfare that is fought has changed from a fixed battleground to guerrilla warfare and in extreme cases ethnic cleansing. The Bosnian war is a prime example of this change of warfare. The Bosnian war would turn into a war of ethnic cleansing where Serban soldier would setup contention camps such as in Omarska and would massacre Muslim people in the cities of Prijedor and Srebrenica. In Addition, women would be raped by soldiers in staggering numbers and hospitals bombed expense in regions like Mostar. Nonetheless, the Bosnia is not a lone example, nations like Syria, Yemen, Somalia, and many more are seeing the same problems as Bosnia. For an example, over 222,000 people have died in Syria since 2011, thousands of women are getting raped in Syria with 17 percent leading to death, and in Somalia, around 3,000 kids are in the Somali army being forced to fight.
    The United States believes that out of all the actives the United Nations ingates in, peacekeepers embodies the American founding ideal the most. This is why America has been a strong supporter of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. Also, the united nation signs Security council resolution 2272 to make the peacekeeper more effective and hold peacekeepers accountable for their inaccurate actions. In addition, the united states have been an advocate for security council resolution 2286 to condemn the attacks against hospitals in war zones. Furthermore, the United States has backed other resolutions like Security Council Resolution 1265 and Security Council resolution 1674, which both we resolutions meant to protect civilians in war zones.
    The United States believes there are specific actions the United Nation should take to ensure the future protection of calcium in war zones. For one, the united states believe that peacekeeper reforms need to take place to make them more effective and more respect, so when people see the blue helmets arrive that they are not a threat, but a reliable force to protect them and proved security. Also, the United States believe too that there is reform and better conception between nation to bring those would have been charged with crimes against humanity to go to trial under the International criminal court. This topic should not be taken lightly and the United States will ensure that this committee fulfills its duty of maintaining and committing to stop these crimes against humans and stop these flagrant actions to the fullest extent.

  • Hariskljuvic
    Hariskljuvic November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: DISEC
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country:United States
    Delegate: Haris Kljuvic, Forest Hills Northern
    Protecting civilians is a founding idea of the United Nations. The United Nations would constantly provide aid and protect civilians in war zones all over the world. The United Nation would commit to its first peacekeeping mission in 1948 in the State of Israel and Palestine. Nevertheless, as throughout history the type of warfare that is fought has changed from a fixed battleground to guerrilla warfare and in extreme cases ethnic cleansing. The Bosnian war is a prime example of this change of warfare. The Bosnian war would turn into a war of ethnic cleansing where Serban soldier would setup contention camps such as in Omarska and would massacre Muslim people in the cities of Prijedor and Srebrenica. In Addition, women would be raped by soldiers in staggering numbers and hospitals bombed expense in regions like Mostar. Nonetheless, the Bosnia is not a lone example, nations like Syria, Yemen, Somalia, and many more are seeing the same problems as Bosnia. For an example, over 222,000 people have died in Syria since 2011, thousands of women are getting raped in Syria with 17 percent leading to death, and in Somalia, around 3,000 kids are in the Somali army being forced to fight.
    The United States believes that out of all the actives the United Nations ingates in, peacekeepers embodies the American founding ideal the most. This is why America has been a strong supporter of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. Also, the united nation signs Security council resolution 2272 to make the peacekeeper more effective and hold peacekeepers accountable for their inaccurate actions. In addition, the united states have been an advocate for security council resolution 2286 to condemn the attacks against hospitals in war zones. Furthermore, the United States has backed other resolutions like Security Council Resolution 1265 and Security Council resolution 1674, which both we resolutions meant to protect civilians in war zones.
    The United States believes there are specific actions the United Nation should take to ensure the future protection of calcium in war zones. For one, the united states believe that peacekeeper reforms need to take place to make them more effective and more respect, so when people see the blue helmets arrive that they are not a threat, but a reliable force to protect them and proved security. Also, the United States believe too that there is reform and better conception between nation to bring those would have been charged with crimes against humanity to go to trial under the International criminal court. This topic should not be taken lightly and the United States will ensure that this committee fulfills its duty of maintaining and committing to stop these crimes against humans and stop these flagrant actions to the fullest extent.

  • EthanF-B
    EthanF-B November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Germany

    Germany is in strong support of getting civilians out of combat zones such as Syria or other middle east combat zones. Germany is already taking in refugees from these combat zones but those who choose to stay in those combat zones are at great risk. It is understood that these places may be what many still call home and they cannot leave because of these sentimental reasons, so the best course of action is to call upon cease fires in these areas to save the remaining civilian and to stop civilian casualties.
    The best thing for these people is to leave these places and find new homes until there homes are no longer in combat zones. It may be a hard decision but it is the best we can do until those people country in question is no longer a combat zone so that these people can be safe in the comfort of their own home without bombs dropping on them unexpectedly. Germany is willing to take these refugees but is also asking other countries that have the necesary resources to bring these people in to help them.

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    Sam Streng November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Republic of Uganda
    Delegate: Sam Streng, Forest Hills Northern

    Over the past decade, wars have been increasingly fought between rival groups, such as terrorist organizations, and not between countries. These groups not only don’t follow the International Humanitarian Law (IHL), which seeks to protect civilians not participating in hostilities against violence, but they continually capture and use civilians to help strengthen their organizations. Between October of 2016 and July of 2017, it is believed that more than 5,000 civilians have been killed in the war against ISIS. The majority of the civilians affected by this conflict have been women and children. Women are often captured and used as sex slaves and children as forced soldiers. Children are also at a much greater risk of starvation. The United Nations has continually tried to provide aid for these persons in danger, but attacks against hospitals and healthcare workers discourage those from helping and seeking aid. The UN has also worked to relocate civilians in conflict zones.
    In 2004 Uganda was at the center of a humanitarian crisis, one so bad that the United Nations called it one of the worst humanitarian disasters in the world. The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), is a terrorist organization in Uganda with the goal of ruling Uganda with the Ten Commandments. Over the past 25 years, the LRA has killed approximately 100,000 people and abducted between 60,000 to 100,000 children to be used as sex slaves or child soldiers and displaced around 2.5 million people. During this time the government of Uganda successfully was able to drive the LRA out of the country, but due to a lack of support from the United Nations and other countries, Uganda was forced to ends its search for the LRA’s leader. Because of this, the LRA has successfully been able to operate in South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic. In the last year, the LRA has perpetrated 77 attacks.
    Uganda believes in security and protection of persons and property and eliminating terrorism and will take all necessary steps in doing so. Uganda looks to create a strong, peaceful and united Africa, in order to do this we propose that the United Nations allocate monetary funds that countries can use in a time of crisis to help protect civilians. These funds are to be used by countries to provide food for civilians in need and to build refugee camps for internally displaced people. They may be also be used to help finance protective forces fighting against threats against civilians. Uganda also proposes that the United Nations strengthens its peacekeeping forces. Countries may call upon these peacekeeping forces during times in which protection is needed for civilians such as those in refugee camps. These forces can also be called upon when there is an imminent threat of terrorism against civilians or the government.

  • Matteosp44
    Matteosp44 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Protecting Civilians in Areas of Armed Conflict
    DISEC
    Iraq
    Matteo Papadopoulos

    The country of Iraq as a whole is being devastated, barraged, bombarded, by attack after attack, instigated primarily by the Islamic State and other extremist groups. Unfortunately, many civilians are being killed by the Islamic State. From January 2014 to October 2015 and in 2017, an estimated 33,800 civilians were killed in the Middle East area; however, the real number is likely much higher. During the Battle of Mosul (October 2016 – December 2017), around 10,000 civilians were killed just in the urban area of Mosul. These acts of terrorism are hindering civilians’ everyday happenings, and instill fear in civilians, blocking them from completing even the simplest of tasks, whether it be inside or outside of their homes. Nobody is safe, even with the decline of ISIS control of territory. Although the vicious onslaught of aggressions on the part of the Islamic State has somewhat subsided, civilians are still unable to access adequate medical care or education. Worldwide, around 50 million people in urban areas are exposed to conflict. This is not just a problem in Iraq, and countries around the world must recognize this.

    The Republic of Iraq is doing everything we can to protect our civilians, and the casualties have indeed dropped, with the help of very beneficial non-governmental organizations. Educating citizens upon their return to their war-torn home cities has proven to be advantageous, as raising awareness regarding the detriments and drawbacks of being constantly present in such an environment is imperative. Also, a non-governmental organization called Save the Children is sending supplies to Iraqi children in need. More and more organizations are being formed that are extremely helpful to affected civilians, and everyone in Iraq is appreciative. The delegation of Iraq urges any and all willing countries to work for or donate to these non-governmental organizations help the civilians of Iraq.

    3.4 million innocent Iraqi civilians have been displaced, exacerbating a worldwide refugee crisis, and over one in three Iraqis are in dire need of humanitarian assistance. We must highlight, as the United Nations, that this is not a situation to be overlooked and the severity of this situation cannot be underestimated.

    In the future, Iraq must be focused on providing humanitarian aid to civilians in need and administering more training to the military to effectively combat the Islamic State and to prioritize the lives of civilians. To ensure the security of affected civilians, the delegation of Iraq encourages countries to reform immigration laws to be more lenient, as refugees are people and deserve to be treated with dignity and respect. Within the country of Iraq, more hospitals should be built, especially in densely packed urban areas, in order to provide accessible medical care to those who need it the most.

    “Iraq Conflict: Civilians Suffering ‘Staggering’ Violence – UN.” BBC News, BBC, 19 Jan. 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35349861.
    McVeigh, Karen. “’Crazy Numbers’: Civilian Deaths from Airstrikes Almost Double in a Year.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 8 Jan. 2018, http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/jan/08/civilian-deaths-from-airstrikes-almost-double-year.
    Oakford, Samuel. “Counting the Dead in Mosul.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 5 Apr. 2018, http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/04/counting-the-dead-in-mosul/556466/.
    “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict.” International Committee of the Red Cross, 1, 25 May 2017, http://www.icrc.org/en/document/protection-civilians-armed-conflict.
    Svoboda, Eva. “Protecting Civilians: a Lesson from Iraq on Why We Can’t Ignore International Humanitarian Law.” News.trust.org, 31 July 2017, http://www.news.trust.org/item/20170728143545-ge09o.

  • Gmcevoy087
    Gmcevoy087 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Griffin McEvoy, Mattawan High School
    Turkey
    DISEC: Protecting Civilians

    The prevalence of citizens being killed in war has increased dramatically over the past 100 years. The cry for humanitarian efforts to assist in war have gone unanswered repeatedly because of the ceaseless attacks upon civilians. As guerilla warfare slowly takes the throne over the reigning king of battlefield conflict, we raise the question on how to protect civilians? Overtime, the professionalism of war has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century. The start of the 1900s saw around 10%-15% of deaths in war being that of a civilian. This contrasts to the end of the 20th century that had a noticeable increase boasting 75% of deaths being a civilian casualty. With this statistic we can start unraveling the knot of this war crime. Higher civilian casualties creates a larger fear for humanitarian efforts limiting the amount of medical and person help a country receives. The concept of protecting civilian casualties does have to do with the countries policies on war crimes.
    In the country of Turkey, we fight to secure our borders from terrorists along with fighting the war on terrorism. Constantly, we find members of terrorist organizations attempting to enter our borders for recruitment and attacks on our innocent civilians. Recently, Turkey and Russia have set up a demilitarized zone near the border of Turkey to act as a buffer between the Syrian armies and the rebels. Vladimir Putin has decided that the demilitarized zone, Idlib, will be safe from Russian and Syrian attack, and Russia will remove all heavy weapons and artillery. This agreement is a sign of Turkeys influence over Russia to ceasefire. Demilitarizing Idlib will not only protect the citizens of Turkey by creating a zone were attack is outlawed, but will help start negotiations of a peaceful end to Russia and Turkey’s conflict. This shows that both Turkey and the world can discuss solutions to conflicts formally costing no civilian their life. In the worst possible case, a formal discussion can set restrictions and consequences for war crimes ultimately decreasing the amount of civilian deaths which will increase the aid to civilian issues.
    The killing of citizens in a war zone is like a terminal disease in which it cannot be cured. There will always be civilians killed in a war zone, but even though this may not be a likable fact there are ways our committee could help prevent the deaths of civilians as much as possible. First, conflicting parties should avoid using explosive weapons in populated areas. Last year 75% of explosive deaths were civilian casualties. The civilians that live through these explosions suffer the lack of hospital, schools, and even clean sources of water due to the destruction of a bomb. In Afghanistan the amount of civilians killed decrease enormously after new methods were sought after to fight against the enemy. Finally, groups at war should modify their plan of attack based on the humanitarian effort and laws set in a location. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research, the transfer of major weapons has increased steadily over the last decade. To combat this transfer, groups should limit their exports based on a number of determine factors to prevent the unlawful use of these destructive motives.

  • HukasLultberg
    HukasLultberg November 14, 2018 Reply

    Protecting civilians in conflict zones is a crucial issue for the United Nations. The guerilla-style methods used in many areas of war have made the number of civilian casualties, both indirect and intentional, skyrocket. International humanitarian laws must be enforced and those who break those laws must be punished.
    There are many ways to decrease civilian casualties in conflict zones. For example, explosive weapons should be suspended from use in areas populated with civilians. In fact, three out of four victims of explosive weapons are civilians. Additionally, schools, hospitals, and water infrastructure should be protected from attack. Medical personnel should be able to safely reach civilians in conflict zones and attacks against humanitarian assistance should not be tolerated. Countries housing refugees should uphold their human rights, giving them health care and assistance. And the exporting of weapons should be made with international humanitarian laws in mind.
    Guatemala is very concerned about the safety of civilians in conflict zones. There are multiple solutions to this issue, such as suspending explosive weapons in civilian areas or ensuring the protection of medical personnel. The United Nations has a duty to protect innocent people from harm.

  • Williamrmathias
    Williamrmathias November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Croatia
    William Mathias
    Forest Hills Northern

    Since the mid 20th century, wars have increasingly used more guerilla tactics of fighting. This transition in combat has led to more civilian casualties of war as innocent people are cut off from necessary resources like food and water, or, are directly killed in combat. The Yugoslav wars, which occurred during the 1990s, is an example of the horrors civilians face during conflicts. An estimated 8,000 civilian Croats died during the conflict and nearly 800,000 were left as refugees of war.
    While Croatia recognizes the gravity of this situation, it is important that we maintain defined boundaries a cohesive national identity. Furthermore, Croatia doesn’t have the resources or the physical constitution to support an influx of immigrants of this current magnitude. Unfortunately, this means that Croatia will be strict when it comes to accepting refugees. Even so, our government believes that refugees facing more immediate dangers should be attended to. Croatia has set up a number of refugee camps in the past, like Opatovac and Bapska, that work as temporary locations before they are transported to larger European countries.
    At this conference, Croatia would like to see that the diversity of situations in which refugees currently find themselves is addressed. Specifically, that those who are in immediate danger are attended to while the root problems in their home countries are solved. It’s also important that larger countries who have more resources be willing to take refugees, as Croatia can only hold them temporarily.

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    Tyson Heckelman November 14, 2018 Reply

    In the stance in which Bolivia takes to the argument in what we can do to start protecting civilians rights in conflict zones stands to be that we as the DISEC community need to bring more to the table with this issue and protecting civilians much more, because with rising issues such as taking women and children hostages in some cases causes a serious threat to their lives in areas we might not even be able to reach so we as a community need to start taking more steps to ensure their safety in zones that which we can’t guarantee their protection. Such examples of areas where we could have saved many people if we had protected their rights as a human being were in recent wars when the lives of the innocent were not thought of when some of the battles took place causing the homes of innocents to be lost and lives of their loved ones also having lives being taken away, routinely civilians are rounded up in smaller nations and killed out of sight of the public and we need to make this stop to the best of our abilities by maybe one making our consequences for the injuring and or killing of civilians way more harsh to the people who decide that doing that is a good idea because the world will not stand for this and the results of this happening are truly devastating to the people who now can never feel safe where they go.

  • Jarichards
    Jarichards November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee : Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)
    Topic Area : Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country : Japan
    Delegate : Joseph Richards
    Vicksburg High School

    The United Nations was founded on the idea of protecting civilians around the world. As such, the responsibility for these civilians rests in the hands of each and every member of the United Nations, to protect and aid civilians suffering a state of war, regardless of where they are or what country they are from. Japan, as one of the major members of the United Nations, firmly supports this responsibility to civilians and has already taken a number of measures contribute to this cause. In February of 2015, Japan implemented a Development Cooperation Charter, in hopes of addressing the issue of better protecting civilians in major conflict zones. In this charter, according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan committed itself to monitoring the situations in the in recipient countries regarding military expenditures, development and production of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, and export and import of arms, etc. Further stating that “this is done with a view to maintaining international peace and stability including the prevention of terrorism and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and based on the position that developing countries should allocate their resources appropriately and preferentially for their own socio-economic development.” Japan firmly believes that peace, stability and security are prerequisites for nation-building and development. Avoiding additional military conflict is one of Japan’s primary concerns, as this could potentially only further the current issue facing civilians.

    Japan urges the United Nations to avoid further military conflict and proposes that a resolution be created that provides a non-militaristic solution to the devastating guerrilla-style warfare and more effectively protects the rights of civilians in the ever-changing dynamic of conflict zones.

    CITATIONS:
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Development Cooperation Charter”
    https://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/sector/conflict/action.html February, 2015

  • avatar image
    Jane Swartz November 14, 2018 Reply

    Jane Swartz
    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Guyana

    As the world evolves, so does its warfare. From traditional battlefield combat to more guerrilla-style fighting, there are often unintentional civilian casualties. In places such as Afghanistan, the death toll reached 1,692 in the first six months of 2018, the highest it’s ever been. While there is currently no threat of war in Guyana, the delegation wants to fight to protect citizens who did not do anything to cause them these harms. The government has not made any steps, that we are aware of, towards this future. However, we are willing to work with allies such as Canada and the United States to take measures such as creating stronger support and evacuation systems.

  • DiegoZoll
    DiegoZoll November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Colombia

    As the rise of guerrilla-style tactics in civilian populated areas has continued to increase, Colombia has relentlessly pushed measures aimed at stopping the major non-state actor, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and focused on aiding it’s citizens in recuperating and preventing further civilian casualties. Peace talks that began in 2012 have allowed Colombian civilians increased security and created a peaceful mediation between the Colombian government and former FARC members. A revised peace agreement was approved by the Colombian Congress in December 2016 that stripped FARC of their assets and fully defined the repercussions of the former member’s actions. Colombia firmly believes that these actions should serve as a basis for other nations to begin negotiations between their government and the hostile non-state actors that create these conflict zones.

    The delegation of Colombia believes fully that peaceful negotiations between non-state actors and governments is the most effective route in protecting civilians in conflict zones. This being said, Colombia recognizes the need for civilian protection and aid during times of unfortunate conflict, and as such, strongly urges their fellow nations to allocate appropriate funding toward civilian relief programs in addition to preventative measures to protect governments from unnecessary conflict with malicious groups.

    The United Nations main purpose is to maintain world peace and security. This ideal can be achieved if nations band together in passing resolutions addressing peaceful mediation between countries and non-state actors while also focusing on the demilitarization of current conflict zones. Colombia urges the United Nations to prioritize the well-being of its citizens above all else and consider the consequences if civilians continue being victims of warfare.

  • Cameron
    Cameron November 15, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Disarmament and International Security Committee
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Country: Russia
    Delegate: Cameron Holtman

    The protection of civilians in conflict zones is one of the utmost top priorities that any country in this world should take part in. War, conflict, destruction, are all inevitable. There will always be disagreements, whether that is due to internal or external complications. Thus there must be a way to protect those of the in-between. The poor families, torn apart, watching their loved ones die in front of them need protection. Lost, directionless, we the countries of the world need to protect them. It is up to us, the leaders to figure out the solution to the crisis.
    The great Russian Federation is here with a plan to limit the amount of death to civilians and to keep the close-knit families together. We propose the formation of a new committee and a new plan created by the DISEC committee. It will be called the World Housing Association for The refugees (W.H.A.T for short) that is geared towards the protection of refugees in the middle of a conflict. These centers would be created around the world for the protection of anyone in need of a place to stay and a place to eat. In countries where there is a violent conflict, W.H.A.T will provide protection through the United Nations peacekeepers in which the great Russian Federation will donate an ample amount of troops to help. The protection will entail both police and if needed, protection from the outside world. There will be a legal system for any disputes that will eventually arise and protection from the people inside the center if needed. These will be a secure area with no outside weapons or other threats allowed. There will be of course a cost of all of this. To offset this enormous price tag we propose that in order for a refugee (or a family of refugees) to stay in our center, they must work. What they do is up to the chief executive of the center and it is whatever they deem necessary depending on the location and possible surrounding resources. Work will set you free. We believe that work done by the residence is a good trade-off for the protection, food, clean water, and shelter that we give them for free. I hope that all of you will support the great Russian Federation and our wonderful W.H.A.T plan and committee.

  • JSkura
    JSkura November 15, 2018 Reply

    Country: Libya
    Committee: DISEC
    School: Kalamazoo Central
    Topic: Protecting Civilians in Conflict Zones
    Delegate: John Skuratowicz
    Ever since the atrocities committed on September 11, 2001, the world has become to a war on terror. Now, more than ever, civilians have been on the front lines of the battlefield. As it becomes harder and harder to separate civilian from combatant, more concern for the safety of civilians must be given. Libya is no exception. The civil war that ensued in 2011, resulting in the death of dictator Muammar Gaddafi, left a wake of devastation across the country. One incident, the Second Gulf of Sidra incident, left an estimated 1600 civilians dead, according to one source. More recently, a second civil war for Libya, motivated by a desire for access to Libya’s oil, has led to conflict between several factions including ISIS. In 2016, this was estimated to be the result of at least 1500 civilian casualties.
    Following the death of Gaddafi in 2011, the Libyan government has been surrounded by controversy. As of 2018, there has yet to be a proactive state agency that is designed to help keep civilians safe. Reactive agencies, such as the Libyan Ministry for the Affairs of the Families of Martyrs and Missing People, have been ineffective at helping to re-unite separated families. In short, the Libyan government is unable to guarantee the safety of its citizens. As a result, Libya is calling for UN assistance as the situation becomes increasingly volatile. The USMIL, a UN sub council, has had only a slight impact on the overall stability of Libya and must increase its efforts rapidly if there is any hope of peace in the future.
    Libya is in chaos. As a result, the people of Libya cannot hope to live everyday life regularly. Libya calls for an international coalition of support. The goal of Libya in this council is to help improve the conditions of not only citizens in Libya, but of people in conflict zones across the world.

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