The Great Lakes Invitational Conference Association

Political Corruption in Latin America

Latin American political corruption can attribute its origins in part to the region’s colonial history. Much of Latin America was colonized by the West, and the centralization of power this entailed resulted in a tendency toward autocracy following independence. When autocratic governments were in place, there was often a complete lack of transparency and accountability to prevent abuse of power or the taking of bribes by government officials. Even as countries throughout the region have transitioned to more democratic systems, oftentimes rent-seeking behavior on the part of national bureaucracies has been difficult to root out. In recent years, corruption in the region has become inextricably linked to organized crime units, most commonly international drug cartels. The question now is: what strategies may be used to combat corruption in Latin America?

 

Accusations of corruption within Latin America have coincided with the rise of violent crime, drug trafficking, and other illegal activities. According to data from Transparency International, corruption rates vary between governmental departments, such as law enforcement, utilities, and public transportation. The rates vary between countries as well; Transparency International found the average departmental corruption rate in each country ranged from 11%-51%.

 

In order to effectively tackle corruption in this region we must simultaneously look at fundamental factors that lead to corruption as well as projects or political solutions to limit corruption and how they have affected these nations. Many of the causes of corruption can be tied to such potential solutions, both successful and failed. For instance, corruption can often be driven by a lack of economic success and weak institutions that fail to provide proportional consequences for crimes committed. Resolving this would entail providing well-supervised foreign aid to weak governments for the purposes of institution-building, improving government function and accountability, while simultaneously paving the way toward establishing anti-corruption bodies that can self-police. Strengthened institutions can also crack down more effectively on drug trafficking in markets saturated with drug use and associated illicit activity.

 

At the highest level, policy must be written to promote transparency, both at the domestic level, and as a trust-building measure with the international community and NGOs that have the ability to aid in other ways. These solutions all have drawbacks that must be taken into consideration. A lack of adequate oversight when providing funds and aid to necessary parties could result in a continued cycle of corruption if the proper transparency mechanisms have not been established. In order to address the issue of corruption, we must consider the subsidiary issues that affect the presence of corruption in Latin America, including but not limited to continued drug trafficking, organized crime, and the issue of authoritarian vs. democratic governments.

  • Kylekorte
    Kylekorte November 11, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    State of Kuwait
    Kyle Korte

    In March 2014, a vast network of organized corruption took root in Brazil. Nicknamed Lava Jato, or Car Wash, this operation funneled billions of dollars to company executives of Petrobras, a state-controlled petroleum. Corruption, such as this bribery, is not unfamiliar to Latin America. From Jose Lopez, a public works secretary, stashing millions of dollars in nunneries to Peru’s president resigning amidst corruption scandals, Latin America has become riddled with a devastating disease that has proven hard to eradicate. Anti-corruption legislation, such as Chile’s passage of a public probity law that prevents conflicts of interest in the public sector, has proven to be ineffective and the perception of corruption across the region has risen steadily since 2012 according to Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index (CPI), with both Uruguay and Venezuela, Latin America’s least and most corrupt countries respectively, dropping two points. Numerous anti-corruption movements have failed to ignite true change, as corruption scandals continue to erupt. The chaos created requires the help of the United Nations (UN). The International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) combats criminal groups that have infiltrated state institutions. However, this mission has been criticized for infringing upon Guatemala’s sovereignty by their president, who is the target of an investigation into illegal campaign finance. The Guatemalan president, Jimmy Morales, plans to dismantle the commission through ending its mandate. Since 2006, the commission has helped jail three ex-presidents, as well as dozens of lawmakers, hit men, and drug traffickers. Nevertheless, all this work would be inconsequential if the mandate is ended. It is the duty of the Special Political committee to find a solution to this multifaceted problem that does not infringe on national sovereignty, but effectively diminishes the influence of corruption in Latin America.

    The State of Kuwait has poured resources into fighting corruption at the national level. Kuwait has criminalized all forms of identifiable corruption, mainly through Penal Law 31/1970. This criminalizes passive and active bribery, attempted corruption, extortion, money laundering and abuse of office. The Kuwait Anti-Corruption Authority (Nazaha) aims to fight corruption, prevent its risks and consequences, and prosecute its perpetrators. This means establishing transparency in economic and administrative transactions, implementing the United Nations Convention against Corruption, and engaging citizens in the fight against corruption through education and civil society institutions and organizations. Recently, a joint cooperation project was created between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Nazaha, and many other UN bodies in order to strengthen Nazaha. Kuwait has also donated nearly $200,000 to the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA) that will be used to fight corruption internationally. Additionally, Kuwait has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the IACA and the Arab League that sets a framework for cooperation between the two organization in the areas of anti-corruption and compliance. Kuwait is dedicated to cooperate with international anti-corruption organizations and institutions and calls all nations to have the same dedication and desire. Moreover, Kuwait is willing to provide troops to global organization to work in the field. Kuwait is willing to help Latin America in their fight against corruption.

    It is not only the duty of the Special Political committee to reaffirm the actions of the UN and other international anti-corruption institutions but also to put in place safeguards to ensure the viability and efficiency of them. Many of the resources to fight corruption have already been created, however, they need to be focused and tailored to the needs of Latin America. Latin America needs to be put under careful watch to ensure that all anti-corruption laws and provisions are executed with precision so the old problems do not return as they have in the past. One way to do this would be to expand the current UN Missions for Justice Support Peacekeeping Mission to all of Latin America. This will keep governments accountable for their actions as they will be under close watch by the UN. Whistleblowers also need to both have a platform to safely voice concerns about corruption and adequate protection from oppressive, corrupt governments such as those in Latin America. This can be achieved through funding to the National Whistleblower Center, a non-governmental organization (NGO) that protects the rights of individuals that report wrongdoings and ensure there is no fear of retaliation. It will prove to be a challenge to the Special Political committee to implement anti-corruption measures without infringing upon the sovereignty of the Latin American countries, thus it is necessary to have the support of these countries. One possible way to safeguard the sovereignty of Latin American nations is to encourage countries to enact their own anti-corruption legislation along through a nonpartisan, specialized judicial body to exclusively handle corruption cases so there is no conflict of interest. While this does not guarantee change, a subcommittee of the Special Political committee should be created in order to oversee these efforts and increase communication with political leaders in order to keep countries accountable.

  • Connorholladay1
    Connorholladay1 November 11, 2018 Reply

    Political Corruption anywhere is bad. But Latin America is quite familiar with political corruption. Several nations in Latin America have experienced some sort of political corruption. Like Mexico, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, etc… Corruption is also present in Bolivia. Corruption in Bolivia has been around since 1825 when it gained independence from Spain but is still present today. Some examples of corruption in Bolivia are Bribery, how elections are funded, the Customs service, and how the right to Private Property is often infringed upon. Bolivia’s current president Evo Morales convinced low and middle-class voters that his social revolution would overcome establishment corruption. However, under Morales, the opportunities for corruption have been greatly expanded. Along with the Police, government bureaucracy is considered one of the most corrupt sectors in the country. The judiciary is the most corrupt sector in the country. It is very weak, inefficient, short on resources, and is subject to interference with court decisions by politicians. The United States is also concerned about the current situation sending a warning that it could become a Cuban-Venezuelan dictatorship. The courts also eliminated the term limit for a president for Evo Morales. Evo Morales is running for a 4th term and Bolivian citizens have said that they want him out. He has also been involved in many scandals. With Morales and his government continuing to be corrupt, being involved in many scandals, banning term limits for presidents, and infuriating citizens shows that the Bolivian government doesn’t see political corruption in Latin America and its own country as a problem.

  • Abbiemorrow
    Abbiemorrow November 12, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Republic of El Salvador
    Abigail Morrow

    Throughout history, Latin American countries have been colonized by European nations such as Spain, Portugal and France. Once Latin American countries gained their independence, they often resulted in autocratic governments due to the centralization of power under colonization. Although many countries have begun to and are trying to shift into democratic governments, there has been a challenge as other powers take control in these countries due to organized crime units. The number one perpetuator of this issue is drug cartels. Political corruption in Latin America has been detrimental to many lives, for example the corrupt situations in Honduras have caused 4,000 citizens to migrate towards the United States in hope of escaping poor working conditions and violence. For El Salvador the topic of Political Corruption in Latin America is very prevalent. In El Salvador the crime rates are very high. There are hundreds of violent, well-armed street gangs that have access to weapons. The homicide rates are very high, but as a country we are actively working to decrease them. In fact, there was a 25% decrease in homicide rates from 2016 to 2017. It is very important to El Salvador to improve the current corrupt situation in Latin America and our country, in order to ensure better rights for our citizens.

    Currently, El Salvador faces corruption through drug cartels and crime but not in our government. El Salvador emphasizes the importance of a depoliticized approach to the selection of judges and magistrates. Our government has also enabled the participation of citizens and and interested parties to the process of interviewing and vetting candidates for positions on the bench. El Salvador’s political figures are delegates of the people, therefore making them responsible for abiding to the constitution, regardless of their position. Our government is a becoming a better democracy everyday. Transparency and access to public information are prerequisites for the full effect of the rule of law. The law on public information ensures that Salvadorans who request information from State bodies receive that information. Our Government has also strengthened citizen participation through citizen assemblies and thematic committees with representation from a broad swathe of sectors. Unfortunately, El Salvador still experiences numerous homicides per year due to a high crime rate. El Salvador’s response to this issue is Plan El Salvador Seguro which focuses on the areas with the highest levels of crime, poverty, and gang presence. El Salvador has been working hard on crime prevention and criminal justice, in particular toward the elimination of violence against migrants, workers and their families. This was subject of one of the resolutions El Salvador has recently presented before the security council. El Salvador’s president, Salvador Sánchez Cerén, said “We will work hard to bring tranquility, decrease insecurity and persecute those who commit crimes.” El Salvador has addressed concern of corruption in our country with the United Nations Security Council. The Security Council is working with El Salvador to create an atmosphere of peaceful coexistence in the country.

    El Salvador recommends that in order to enhance stability and end corruption in Latin American countries, the Special Political committee must work at decreasing crime rates. El Salvador calls on developed countries in this time of corruption, to assist El Salvador and others. Many of the Latin American countries receive their negative political connotation because of their high crime rates and drug cartels. El Salvador suggests the committee work together in order to solve the problem of crime by implementing better security in all the nations struggling with corruption. Furthermore, El Salvador suggests that the funds for this purpose be given directly to the nations and they must decide how they are going to increase national security. El Salvador would like to see the international community support Latin American countries in our war against crime and corruption. We would like to see this support through funds and possibly military and security assistance such as national civil police. El Salvador recognizes past faults in corruption which leads us to the realization that corruption can improve within a government and crime rates can improve through implementing policies. El Salvador strongly urges the United Nations to assist Latin American countries to improve civilian life in all nations.

  • Spencer_peters
    Spencer_peters November 12, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Oriental Republic of Uruguay
    Spencer Peters

    Political corruption in Latin America has longstanding been a problem concerning both the political and societal life of countries present in the region. Eight former Mexican governors are facing corruption charges, over 62% of people in a survey conducted by Transparency International said corruption had risen substantially in their countries. 47% of people said that the police is mostly or completely corrupt. 43% said their prime minister or president is corrupt. Corruption in government will result in a society that is unjust and a society that rapidly deteriorates. It is of utmost importance that corruption be dramatically reduced, or completely destroyed.

    As a country that is objectively considered to be the least corrupt country in all of Latin America it is imperative that we play a pivotal role in stopping the growth of subversive elements in governments and businesses. As a signatory of the United Nations Conventions Against Corruption we recognise that corruption in South America is unbearable. We have instituted strict laws against corruption. We have instituted many different laws such as the Anti-Bribery law which makes bribes or facilitation payments illegal, those found convicted could serve up to six years in jail. Our judiciary system is honest and just by ensuring judicial independence in the constitution. We have also used law 19,355 which establishes a framework against money laundering and cites corruption as a preceding crime. The police force in Uruguay is also honest, following a three year investigation only 9 police officers were found guilty and prosecuted for corruption charges. The police force is able to stay honest by addressing impunity through the court system. We ensure that businesses in the country do not gain too much power by preventing money laundering and stopping bribery by making facilitation payments illegal.

    The Oriental Republic of Uruguay recommends that immediate action be taken to stop corruption of all forms in South America. Considering the benefits the current laws have given to Uruguay, it is wise to be sure to institute similar laws for all South American countries. The need to ensure a just judicial system will stop wrongful convictions and sentences. The most important part of ensuring that criminals are caught through the police force must be made responsible and honest. A similar judicial system of reviewing possible cases of impunity must be made a responsibility of the Judicial system/branch. The politicians of other countries should also be under the same amount of scrutiny as the current politicians are in Uruguay. Stopping facilitation payments or bribes will assist greatly in preventing further corruption from spreading further and deeper into Latin America.

  • Leahpalladino
    Leahpalladino November 12, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Republic of the Philippines
    Leah Palladino

    Latin America is experiencing extreme political corruption. Corruption effectively diverts resources, reduces income from tax and customs fees, increases the costs of contracts, lowers quality, distorts policies, reduces investment, and subverts companies and NGOs. Following the independence of many Latin American countries, autocratic governments were in place and there was often a lack of transparency and accountability to limit abuse of power or the taking of bribes by government officials. In recent years, corruption in the region has become linked to organized crime units, most commonly international drug cartels. An example of political corruption in Latin America is in Venezuela, where the ruling party that once won elections fairly has stripped parliament of power in response to opposition victories, stacked courts with political loyalists, and eliminated virtually all independent media.

    The present Presidential Commission Against Graft and Corruption (PCAGC) in the Philippines, which was established in February 1994, is an anti-graft and corruption investigation agency. In 2006, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, a bilateral United States foreign aid agency established by the U.S. Congress in 2004, applied a new philosophy toward foreign aid, granting $21 million to the Philippines for a program addressing corruption in revenue administration. As of 2003, the Philippines became a signatory to the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC). This convention is a multilateral treaty negotiated by member states of the United Nations and promoted by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), which assists member states in their struggle against illicit drugs, crime and terrorism. It is one of the legally binding international anti-corruption agreements. The UNCAC requires that state parties of the treaty implement several anti-corruption measures that focus on main areas of prevention, law enforcement, and international cooperation. The combat against corruption continues with initiatives from various sectors, including government agencies, NGOs, private business, and international organizations. The Philippines is working through various treaties and efforts to root out corruption, open economic opportunity, and invest in health and education. This philosophy should be directed to suffering countries in Latin America.

    The Philippines recommends that the Special Political committee resolve this corruption crisis in Latin America by appealing to anti-corruption countries to provide well-supervised foreign aid to weak governments, improve government function and accountability, and limit corruption-driven organizations such as drug cartels. To quote our President, “I will stop corruption. I have been firing officials left and right every day. Undersecretaries, chiefs of offices, education officials, all of them.” Duterte pledges to end crime and corruption and has let go 21 officials and accepted the resignation of seven. The United Nations must support willing countries in Latin America to eliminate corruption and crime, for it is imperative to the success of a nation. This can be done through monetary and security aid. The UNCAC must reinforce the importance of transparency in Latin American countries. The governments of Latin American countries should implement strengthened institutions and legislation, and this must be done with consent in order to not violate sovereignty. The Special Political committee must work to collaborate with Latin American countries and eliminate corruption.

  • PraneetG
    PraneetG November 12, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
    Praneet Gundepudi

    Political corruption in any country is not an alien topic; it has existed in all forms of governments and in almost all countries and empires at one point in time. In essence, corruption of any sort is never beneficial for a governing body, and is an unnecessary evil that needs to be rid from the world. Corruption in the macroscopic sense not only results in public mistrust in the governing body, but also many other issues such as massive losses of funds and economic stagnation, as well as increasing inequality in major political issues. For example, in Brazil, the Petrobas scandal, arguably one of the largest corruption schemes to be uncovered, led to a $5 billion loss to corruption through state contract kickbacks. There was also the indictment of Argentina’s former president, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, for meddling with the nation’s central bank. The trial against former Guatemalan president, Otto Perez Molina, for spearheading the masterminding of a scheme to allow bribes to be payed to customs officials himself also highlights the extent of involvement all members of government. These were are three examples of political corruption and are leading to these specific Latin American countries having greatly weakened central governments and waning trust and confidence within these countries on their respective governments. These issues call for immediate action on the part of the Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SpecPol) of the United Nations (UN) to first identify and minimize the causes of this corruption in these Latin American countries, and then peacefully transfer power to a legitimate and trustworthy leadership source in each of these countries.

    The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has come under fire recently for our own corruption accusations, and having gone through that, we recognize that corruption is not easy to deal with or put an end to, but it is necessary to do so. There were many corrupt officials in our governing bodies in the past, and allegedly, approximately half of them accepted bribes to push third party ideas through. The transition to a democratically-elected government has been difficult, and is largely the cause of some of these issues. This corruption has caused many issues within our republic such as the loss of funds, deprivation of the vulnerable of essential services and limits their access to justice, and the restriction of our economy to properly progress as it should be. That shows that it is time for action to be taken against this travesty of corruption. We have seen that corruption undermines the authority of the state and its institutions and provides vast opportunity for criminal networks to develop and insurgents to operate. It also reduces the trust between the citizens and government, reverting the affected countries such as Argentina, Brazil, or Guatemala to their former states of conflict. Afghanistan has taken measures to stop this impending disaster and reduce corruption in our country, such as signing the UN Convention Against Corruption’s Implementation Review Mechanism and has adopted Afghanistan’s National Strategy for Combating Corruption, which has led to a safer and more trustworthy government. Our President is wholeheartedly behind this effort, and is one of the spearheads of the anti-corruption movement within Afghanistan; we believe that that is how all countries should function, with a powerful, morally apt leader, who combats the evils of corruption. Central governments should become actively against corruption, and believe that the UN should not allow for political officials to be accepted into the central governments of these countries unless they have publicly stated that they have made efforts to reduce political corruption. It is essential that the sovereignty of the countries’ central governments do not get harmed, but that the general well-being of the public and confidence and trust within the respective governments should increase.

    Afghanistan urges that the UN implement an overseeing confirmation program that does not allow for political officials to be accepted into the central governments of these countries unless they have publicly stated that they have made efforts to reduce political corruption. And through experience, we have learned that corruption emerges out of lack of training and education, as do most issues of the world, and so we also propose that the UN establish an independent selection commission to select, appoint and train new politicians and political staff (within all branches of the respective governments). The commission should be empowered to make recommendations to all central governments on any existing officials who do not meet required levels of integrity. These movements allow for a safer world, not only in the Latin Americas and in the affected nations, but for the supposedly clear countries who do not have to experience the devastation of corruption, and allow for all humans, in the future, to experience a mostly non-corrupt world.

  • avatar image
    Grant Sizemore November 12, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
    Grant Sizemore

    Like political corruption almost everywhere in the world it’s a result of the west colonizing, and leaving them messed up and with no help or guidance. Now the west is trying to go back and “help” these nations, by giving them their ideals and political ideas. But this is just just leading to corruption because the western nations are just putting people in power that will just benefit them. Then the people of those nations are tired of suffering so they try to change the political system, which leads to political destabilization or worse civil war. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea desperately wants this to change. The best way to do this is to as a committee find a solution that benefits no one but the countries in need of political stabilization. This can only be achieved if we work together, and we don’t try to find solutions that benefit us personally. But we find solutions that benefit the world and those who need it most.

  • Anishkokkula
    Anishkokkula November 13, 2018 Reply

    The Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    New Zealand
    Anish Kokkula

    Tracing the origins of Latin America’s colonial history, it is evident that the political corruption in Latin America can be largely attributed to the tendency of the prior countries who colonized it – Spain, France, and Portugal – toward autocracy. The basis of the corruption comes from the combination of excessive government power and insufficient intra-government competition, putting the government in charge of too many lives, and ensures that bribery and lucrative practices take place without accountability. Leaders of countries in Latin America such as Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Brazil, have all displayed their aspirations to hold government power for longer than usual, causing more opportunities for the abuse of power. Moreover, centralization of power imposes transparency and a lack of accountability that otherwise would be vital in preventing the abuse of power or the taking of bribes by government officials. Especially in recent years, corruption in Latin America has been linked to organized crime units, most commonly international drug cartels: criminal organizations with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations. Furthermore, the United Nations must adhere to seek a solution to political corruption by identifying its roots and taking action.

    New Zealand acknowledges the political struggles within Latin America and the type of government that would best counteract corruption. According to the New Zealand Herald, the global anti-corruption NGO international ranked New Zealand as the least corrupt country in the world in its annual Corruption Perception Index. However, there is still room for improvement in government policies – more open public involvement in decision-making and publically accessible registries of the owners of companies and trusts. The Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA) of New Zealand is an independent civilian oversight body that considers grievances against the New Zealand Police, receiving complaints concerning any practice, policy, or procedure, alleging misconduct or neglect of duty by police employees. The Human Rights Commission, the Children’s Commissioner, and the Ombudsman are other agencies with similar responsibilities of limiting corruption. These agencies have a joint responsibility to uphold New Zealand’s commitment to the Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment (OPCAT). New Zealand has reinforced its commitment to combating corruption by ratifying the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), a legally binding global agreement to address corruption in the private and public spheres. Before ratifying it, however, New Zealand made some law amendments through the Organized Crime and Anti-corruption Legislation. New Zealand recognizes that we have a stronger ability to combat political corruption in Latin America, and hope to do so.

    New Zealand believes that it is imperative to the wellbeing of the general public to obtain a strong, yet considerate government who provide “proportional consequences” for crimes. Moreover, a strong, well-organized government is necessary to enforce laws, but also recognize circumstances where citizens are innocent. It is in the best interest of Latin American countries to steer away from autocracies and toward democracies. The UNCAC should do so by aiding the governments of Latin American countries in establishing democracies. Overthrowing the existing autocracies that lead to corruption is the first step, which can be accomplished by larger, more powerful countries, to help overthrow tyrants and other unfair forms of government. With this resolution, the United Nations tackles the issue of corruption at its roots: government policies and intervention. The benefits of this resolution will be seen long term with an improved, fair, and corruption-free global trading system.

  • MattCatchick
    MattCatchick November 13, 2018 Reply

    SUBMITTED TO: Special Political and Decolonization

    FROM: Federal Republic of Somalia

    SUBJECT: Political Corruption in Latin America

    Matt Catchick

    The Federal Republic of Somalia recognizes and greatly hopes to attend to the political corruption exhibited in Latin America. Many countries prominent political leaders have displayed actions that can only be described as nothing short of corrupt. These corrupt acts hardly benefit the good of the country, often putting citizens in a state of distress and danger. A spectrum of such actions include refusal to leave office, profiting from illegal activities, and deliberate failure of public policy. These atrocious actions must be stopped by the Special Political committee the best it can. Such acts can only continue in a highly unstable, and insecure land.

    The Federal Republic of Somalia recommends attentive actions to halt the pursuit of corrupt acts and corruption, focusing mainly on economic stability and physical presence in politically corrupt Latin countries. Maintaining a countries political legitimacy is of the most important in reforming a country’s political status. After maintaining legitimacy, the next step would be to economically assist and stabilize said countries.

    The first step to riding political corruption is the proper indictment of corrupt individuals. The Federal Republic of Somalia would declare this as a crucial step in halting corruption, and would look favorably upon a resolution including a recommendation to the Security Council to have troops placed in corrupt countries to put corrupt leaders on trial. The next step after corrupt individuals are properly removed, in stabilizing a corrupt country economically, it’s important to maintain healthy trading relations with said corrupt countries. Following up on providing corrupt countries with goods, the Federal Republic of Somalia recommends UN overseers to insure the money is properly used in countries with corrupt governments use the money properly.

    If Special Political is able to properly and safely remove and indict corrupt government individuals, maintain political legitimacy, and stabilize said countries economically, the Federal Republic of Somalia believes we stand a great and fighting chance at restoring legitimacy in once corrupt countries.

  • Ndlahuis
    Ndlahuis November 13, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Ukraine
    Nathan Daniel La Huis

    Many countries like Peru, Brasil, Mexico, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Honduras, and more currently face the challenges of political corruption. One good example of this corruption can be found in Operation Car Wash. The operation involved laundering more than 30 billion Brazilian dollars among 11 Latin American countries. Political corruption can destroy governments, hurt the poor, and oppress the common man. Along with these fraudulent governments, there is a major issue with drugs, violence, and crime plaguing Latin America. “The people of Latin America and the Caribbean are being let down by their governments and the private sector. Bribery represents a significant barrier to accessing key public services, particularly for the most vulnerable in society” said José Ugaz, the Chair of Transparency International; an organization that works with public and private sectors of many nations in order to end abuse of power.

    The nation of Ukraine believes that corruption in any part of the world must be addressed quickly and that action against it be met with strong support from the nations of this assembly. Ukraine has first handedly experienced corruption, and still struggles with it to this day. The former president, Viktor Yanukovych, is just one example. He betrayed our country and acted as a mule of the Russian Federation. His bounty is still wanted by us for his crimes. He spent incredible amounts of our citizen’s money on lavish homes and items. He was played like a puppet by Vladimir Putin and the rest of the former KGB members that work at the Kremlin. Bullies like Russia need to be stood up to when they attempt to corrupt nations like they have ours, and it is our duty to fight for the men and women we represent whether it be in Eastern Europe or Latin America. In regards to corruption, Ukraine has received millions from the United Nations Development Programme. Ukraine has formed its own committee called the National Anti-Corruption Bureau to combat corruption within our borders. It prevents, exposes, and investigates corruption issues and corrupt politicians. We urge other nations to follow our lead by forming groups and programs like this.

    Ukraine moves that all members of the United Nations support a program to send UN Peacekeeping Troops to nations in Latin America in order to reform their government, end violence, and rebuild their crumbling nations. Having been invaded by tyrants to our east and harmed by corrupt politicians within our own borders, we know what it takes to solve this problem. Leaders like Nicolas Maduro Juan Orlando Hernández must be stopped and replaced with pro-peace leaders in their respective nations. This must be led by a consensus from the nations that make up our committee, and must be propelled if we wish to end corruption in Latin America and throughout the world.

  • Hudsonyu
    Hudsonyu November 13, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    United Kingdom
    Hudson Yu

    An unfortunate legacy of historical colonization can be seen in the fragmented state of Latin America today. In the tumultuous 1900s, dictators were quick to exploit excessive government power and insufficient intergovernmental competition to rise to power and rule with iron fists. This trend has undermined political efficacy among the Latin American populace, increased crime rates, taught citizens to tolerate heavy-handed government retaliation, and crippled the prospect of economic prosperity. In light of scandals in nations such as Brazil, it is clear that now more than ever, this issue must be resolved.

    International attempts to reconcile political stability in Latin America have occurred as recently as 2007 through the Organization of American States and Inter-American Development Bank sponsored anti-corruption initiative, which the UK is an observer state to. This group meets for a broad awareness-raising events with technical workshops, seminars, and dialogue from anti-bribery experts. It also sparks conversation between the business community aiming to prevent corruption in international transactions and internal activities.

    While these measures taken by the OAS sound good enough on paper, the changes in the state of Latin American politics have been minimal. This is a testament to the pressing need for large scale, focused political reform, perhaps toward more federalist systems of government. An established framework with firm checks and balances will ensure that no branch gains unjust power, especially with an added emphasis on judiciary strength. With this in place, corrupt leaders will be prosecuted for their crimes and attempts to change state constitutions can be warily analyzed. Bureaucracy must also be simplified and streamlined, which will strengthen economies and raise public trust. This can be done through digitizing administrative processes, which will hold public officials accountable by leaving them less room to make arbitrary decisions without being caught. While these programs will not guarantee virtue, they will at least ensure accountability and chip away at the underlying cynicism of citizens disillusioned with corruption. In committee, the UK hopes to facilitate dialogue between countries with successful federalist systems and countries in need of reform in South America.

  • 20mcgoroel
    20mcgoroel November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: Belgium
    Committee: SPECPOL
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Political corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Elizabeth McGoron

    Political corruption in Latin America is because the region’s history of being colonized by the Western countries which has led to inadequate governments and corrupt leaders and the centralization of power this entailed resulted in a tendency toward autocracy following independence. To solve this problem all countries must work together. A lack of adequate oversight when providing funds and aid to necessary parties could result in a continued cycle of corruption if the proper transparency mechanisms have not been established.
    Belgium recognizes that Political corruption in Latin America is a major problem and Corruption risks are generally low and do not form a significant obstacle to doing business in Belgium. However, Belgium believes that corruption is a problem, especially in countries like those in Latin America, which most are impoverished. It is very important that all countries should work together to stable the economies and governments in Latin American countries as. contributes to its people’s well being.
    Belgium believes that it is necessary for countries to provide aid to Latin America and work on decreasing the crime rates there. A lack of aid, will likely not do anything to solve the problem, and it will likely then get worse. Because of Latin America’s poverty rates and high crime rates, the countries governments are often corrupt. The Special Political committee must work to decrease crime rates in the region. As mentioned previously, it is the job of more fortunate developed countries to aid Latin America. Belgium believes this funding is necessary, to improve lives of the citizens that live there, and make a safer Latin america continent overall.

  • avatar image
    Matthew Russell November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: Republic of Moldova
    Committee:SPECPOL
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Matthew Russell

    For many years there has been a great deal of corruption in Latin America. There are many factors that need to be taken into consideration when assessing the route of this corruption. While many would blame the United States’ imperialism on the region that’s not entirely accurate. There are many things to take into account such as political corruption that has been allowed because of corporate influence due to a lack of oversight by the federal government. At least part of this is due to a lack of infrastructure, companies were able to build this infrastructure and seize control of it making the government bend to their will. Organized crime plays perhaps the biggest role and the corruption we see in Latin America today. Because the highly profitable drug cartels are able to easily buyout many members of government there exists a climate which almost welcomes political corruption. This is made even easier by the economic instability in the region, in part due to the poor oversight of government officials who are corrupt, creating a cycle that feeds into itself.
    Although The Republic of Moldova is not a part of Latin America Moldova has faced similar issues. There is a large problem with organized crime. While there is an estimated 200-250 million dollars in drugs sold from Moldova, the main problem is that Moldova is a major transit spot for drug and human trafficking. Moldova experiences a problem with human trafficking. Along with this there was also a missing 1 billion dollars, due to fraudulent bank activities. However because Moldova has such a strong government, Moldova was successfully able to apprehend those responsible for the missing billion dollars and also has strong law enforcement for able to make the intersection for criminal transit quite hard to operate in.
    The Republic of Moldova believes that countries should not be required in any way to send aid to Latin America and that some intervention would be violation of national sovereignty. Moldova believes that the task of constructing a strong and stable government lies heavily on the shoulders of the Latin American countries themselves as well as their allies. The Republic of Moldova believes that stronger government needs to be put in place by the Latin American countries, put that things such as financial aid should only be given by countries who can afford it and are willing to.

  • 20palmatno
    20palmatno November 13, 2018 Reply

    Country: Israel
    Committee: SPECPOL
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Noah Palmatier
    School: Williamston High School
    Political corruption is a fear for any person under a social contract and in Latin America, political corruption is unraveling the governments of the region. Whether it is Guatemala, Brazil, Argentina, or Nicaragua as well as other country in this region, there has been a tremendous amount of political corruption in these countries impacting the people. The impact on the people has overall been negative and the only positive impact of this corruption has been the pocketbooks of the politicians. This corruption is not limited to the top, according to Transparency International, 47% of all police officers in the region are corrupt. Along with corruption in the police force, many of the countries have extreme drug trafficking as well as drug cartels. These drug cartels negatively impact the countries that they are rooted in, as well as, those that surround the “cartel countries” who receive the drugs being exported. Weak and wavering authority allows for increased crime and even the buying of votes of those in the positions of power that are supposed to oppose that activity.
    Israel, which is currently ranked 32nd out of 180 countries on the Corruption Perception Index of 2018, is willing to provide any type of assistance to the powerhouses of the Western Hemisphere to allow the people who are suffering from the unfair practice of political corruption that takes away the power of the people. Although Israel itself has had its own struggles with political corruption, Israel believes that these Latin American countries, with the right guidance from , can overcome this corruption. Israel believes that leaders of these countries should be looking out for the good of the men and women under their jurisdiction instead of the special interests and drug cartels.
    Israel supports the idea of sanctions and stable governments in the Latin America region in order to combat corruption. So, Israel suggests that in order to fight this corruption and to set a precedent against corruption, there must be cutting of UN and foreign aid until stable governments are put into place. Israel also would like to encourage these countries to institute the policy of Rule of Law in order to disallow from corrupt and criminal leader rising and keeping their power.

  • Alex-Zvk
    Alex-Zvk November 13, 2018 Reply

    Special Political
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Peru
    Alex Van Kuiken
    City High Middle School

    Political corruption in Latin American democracy has been known for some time, but the graft scandal known as Lava Jato, or “Car Wash,” one of the largest foreign bribery cases in history, has made it all the more imperative that something is done about it. Peru currently is in a unique position; having a government historically plagued by corruption, Peru’s newest president, Martin Vizcarra, has been pushing forth revolutionary anti-corruption legislation, including strict campaign finance laws, independent judicial selection, and creating a senate to balance the legislature. Principles that prevent graft obviously need to be included in any resolution on the issue, but Peru has experienced strong resistance in approving these initiatives. The difficulty with political corruption is that it often exists at all levels of government, and from current experience, Peru believes that the issues at hand need to be attacked at the source if a long-term solution is to come forth.
    The first issue that must be addressed is the lack of a transparent judiciary. It is well-known that organized crime permits corruption, but whenever one of these criminals is tried, due to frequent bribery of the judiciary, a never-ending cycle is created. When the gangs that sponsor the corruption are never sentenced, there can be no solution. Peru recommends an emphasis on a de-politicized monitoring of the courts to make sure proper sentencing is consistent. Trying to implement policies that merely address criminals and not the reason corruption continues through crime will only create violence and difficulty for law-abiding citizens. Peru also sees issues in the systems of election in government. Solving problems of corruption is difficult through large, established parties because many of these parties are already corrupt. The political establishment clearly needs to have stringent limitations on the finances accepted by corporations to prevent conflicts of interest, but bringing about the change that allows this to be implemented proves difficult. Peru recommends encouraging electoral systems that allow for smaller parties not associated with corporate interests a fair chance so as to upend stagnant politics that prevent reform, as well as ensuring that elections are unbiased through transparent bodies so the will of the people is properly represented.
    Lastly, Peru notes that the long-term cause of corruption in Latin America has been a traditional division between the working class and wealthy elites. Though there are ways to prevent and reduce the extent of corruption, the issue cannot be truly solved until the self-serving nature of the political order is banished. Because politics among Latin American countries tend to perpetuate themselves through graft, improved social mobility is needed to reduce the class distinctions which continue the tradition of corruption in high-level politics. This involves reducing income inequality and promoting greater economic health in Latin America, potentially through some level of UN advisement. Only when the people of these nations truly believe their government is representing their interests can political corruption be completely eradicated.

  • Mccarthyk
    Mccarthyk November 13, 2018 Reply

    COMMITTEE: Special Political

    TOPIC: Political Corruption in Latin America

    COUNTRY: Hellenic Republic of Greece

    Katie McCarthy

    The issue of political corruption is not a new tragedy. Many countries, especially those in Latin America, have been dealing with the effects for years although there has not been a major worldly focus on this specific geographical location. Much of this malfeasance is stemming from the country’s leader. For instance, in Venezuela, a group of elites were detained for withholding 1.2 billion from a prominent Venezuelan crude company, PdVSA. These issues of bribery are only one factor leading to political corruption. Criminal activity along with institutional corruption across Latin American countries are primary problems that must be addressed and ultimately contained as they are causing economic catastrophe and affecting the European Union.

    The Hellenic Republic of Greece is fully aware of the drug cartels and passageways through our country. Being a direct overseas nation, our position is a gateway between the east and the west. This business is especially difficult for us to contain due to our expansive coast line and even more of an issue in tracing the contents to the source. Without this knowledge, we as a country cannot imprison foreign citizens. Beyond these cartels, the delegation of Greece is cognizant that many people in every Latin American country may not be supplied with information. If the government is not transparent with the information they are providing to society, then they will never entirely end their constant cycle of corruption. This factor can be directly tied to government officials. The lack of democracy is leading to dishonesty as well as a lack of accountability. Finally, the delegation of Greece would like to draw attention to scarcity of order in Latin America. Loopholes are abundant and facilitating unwanted behavior among citizens. Violence and organized crimes must be punished. Methods of decriminalization as seen in Portugal will not be sufficient enough to end corruption.

    The delegation of Greece must preface that our committee should not and will not infringe on the national sovereignty of these specific countries and we cannot enforce anything. With that being established, Greece recommends that each Latin American country focus on local leaders. Developing the political side from the roots of the circumstance will create more transparency and will extinguish the corruption on the regional level. In doing these actions, countries will create a more mutual trust among their citizens and political officials. Additionally, if a certain Latin American country were to reach a specified point of corruption, we are leaning toward advising sanctions. Sanctions are harsh but, in this case, they may be necessary. Although we can’t directly endorse these punishments, proposing them may lead to a bigger effort for anti-corruption. Access to the international financial system is also an issue. These loopholes are affecting the EU and every country within it. Cutting of Latin America’s connection to this program may be a possible sanction. One last extensive problem leading to corruption and our main focus in Special Political is the incompetent head of states. Currently, multiple countries provide presidential immunity to leaders. This is significant as these diplomats can get away with momentous crimes. Reforming this law is a necessity and has already been done by Mexico. However, the ultimate goal for all Latin American countries is to switch from this authoritarian government to a democracy. The Hellenic Republic of Greece is hopeful that through communication we as a committee can draft solutions to this long overdue issue and alleviate the political corruption across Latin America.

  • Sam_noonan
    Sam_noonan November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    State of Palestine
    Sam Noonan

    Palestine firmly believes that corruption is a plague to any government, regardless of location, political affiliation, or government. Latin America’s history of corruption is well-known and rooted in its ex-colonial history, but the fact that it still exists proves there is still plenty more to be done. Corruption began when autocratic governments rose to power and leaders used their countries’ wealth for personal gain, a tradition that has disappointingly continued into our modern world. Latin America is currently undergoing a shift towards right-wing leaders, losing left-wing leaders who expressed support for a Palestinian state such as Chavez, Correa, Lula da Silva, and Rousseff; this brings a dramatic shift in the political climate to Latin America, one prompted by these corrupt, destabilized governments.

    Excessive governmental power must be avoided as to prevent politicians and leaders from growing greedy and unconcerned about their countries’ real issues – corruption is strongly linked to the various drug cartels and trafficking organizations – actions taken to put an end to these cartels can help to end corruption and vice versa. Palestine itself does not face any issues regarding corruption, as bigger issues remain on the agenda – mainly being the quest for independence.

    Palestine is concerned that the rise of these right-wing governments could once again lead into corrupt autocracies, undoing any progress made in the past. For these reasons, Palestine would look favorably upon resolutions that urge Latin American countries to steer towards democracies and avoid the aforementioned autocratic forms of government. Pursuing these goals leads to a fair, just government that stands far less chance of catching the plague of corruption.

  • Mitch_k5
    Mitch_k5 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Mitchell J Kovacic, Mattawan High School
    France
    SPECPOL: Political Corruption in Latin America

    In recent years we have a seen a rise of political corruption in Latin America. Most of it is due to the fact that political figures are being paid off. As AC/DC puts it “Money talks” and these political figures are listening. Throughout Latin America there are many powerful drug cartels who have the money to bribe these political officials to do what they want. This is a serious problem because Latin America’s political decisions can affect the rest of the world.

    The main issue we face is how can we stop this? How can we cut the head off the serpent of this corruption? The simple answer that is easier said than done is to simply find the head of the serpent. In other words, we need to find the head of these drug cartels and bring them down. Latin America’s economy is already failing as it is, we can’t let these powerful drug monopolists run it. When has this world ever allowed such an event happen? We as a United Nations always cut down these figures and restore order. What happened when the United States ignored what was happening during WW2 and decided to be neutral and stay out of it by cutting exports to other countries? We got bombed and brought into the war! We can’t make the same mistake. And neither should any other country. What I’m saying is that if we as United Nations don’t solve this problem, then it’s just gonna come straight for us.

    I brought up the idea of cutting off the head of the serpent. That will take time, it would require a tactic used in Daredevil. In the show Matt Murdock, otherwise known as Daredevil, climbs his was through the crime in New York to find out who is in charge of it all. Once Matt finds out that Wilson Fisk, otherwise known as Kingpin, is in charge of it all; he plans a way to stop him. Now originally Matt tries to stop Fisk using the law and justice. That is until he finds out that Fisk owns most of the political figures in and out of New York. As United Nations we can follow Matt’s example of finding out who the “Kingpin” is and cutting them from their source. Now of course it will be much simpler for us than it was for just one man. I understand for some that sounds easier said than done, or plain out ridiculous. But if you don’t kill a cancer cell from its source and flush out the rest, then it will spread faster than wildfire.

  • Jd.lancaster
    Jd.lancaster November 14, 2018 Reply

    JD Lancaster
    Saudi Arabia
    SpecPol
    City High Middle School
    The country of Saudi Arabia recognizes that corruption is a problem that no country is safe from. Therefor Saudi Arabia recognizes that the Special Political committee must act swiftly and quickly in making sure that governments are a lot more transparent with their spending. Obviously the Carwash scandal being one of the biggest scandals at this time. Saudi Arabia also recognizes that corruption can occur at local, and national governments, therefor Saudi Arabia believes it important that if a resolution is passed it should include guidelines for all forms of government. Saudi Arabia hopes that all countries can come to an agreement that respects a nations sovereignty, while also being decisive. However Saudi Arabia also recognizes that countries have a right to rule themselves and the United Nations, specifically SpecPol committee should not impose on that rule and that the United Nations must respect a countries sovereignty as well as be aware that some problems within a nation are entirely domestic and thus, can not be dealt with through the United Nations in any capacity. Saudi Arabia hopes that other countries keep this in mind when they are writing their resolutions. Countries should also keep in mind that Saudi Arabia will refuse to support a resolution that Saudi Arabia believes imposes on a nations right to rule and sovereignty.

  • Nrobbins
    Nrobbins November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Canada
    Natalie Robbins

    For decades, political corruption in Latin America has persisted and spread in such a way that it has become deeply rooted in society. Under a government in which collusion flourishes, nations, and their people, are hurt economically, politically, and socially. Bribery is the most pervasive form of corruption in this region. It acts as a barrier between citizens and their access to public services. Therefore, social inequality increases as poorer people cannot buy the same opportunities wealthier people can. Widespread corruption causes citizens to distrust authority and therefore weaken the democracy set in place. Operation Car Wash is a prime example. A routine money laundering investigation in Brazil developed into an international scandal, with corporations and politicians from 11 other countries were found to be guilty of money laundering, bribery, and attempting to disrupt democratic processes. Furthermore, corruption hampers the economy by deterring foreign investors and entrepreneurs. There is also a strong correlation between violent crime and drug trafficking rates and corruption; Honduras, Venezuela, Guatemala, which are classified as Latin America’s most corrupted countries, are also considered to be some of the most dangerous places in the world. Canada has economic ties and free trade agreements with several countries in Latin America. The damaging effect of corruption combined with the tightening of US immigration policies is also causing many undocumented immigrants from this region to seek asylum in Canada. In order to address this issue, the committee must investigate and combat the causes of this corruption, and invest in ways to sufficiently control it.

    In 2017, Canada ranked 8th on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index. Canada has well-enforced legislation set in place to limit both domestic and foreign corruption, addressed by the Criminal Code and the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act of 1999 respectively. The Federal Accountability Act of 2006 is devoted to transparency in conflicts of interest, the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act of 2007 protects whistleblowers, and the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act of 2000 criminalizes money laundering. Businesses and individuals guilty of fraud, whether at home or abroad, have consistently been investigated, prosecuted, and convicted; however, it is not a prominent issue in most departments of the Canadian government. Anti-corruption is also executed through the Unité Permanent Anticorruption (UPAC) in Quebec. UPAC is the only anti-corruption legislation made by an individual province. Canada actively opposes corruption at an international scale as well. Over the past decade, Canada has invested $6.06 billion in international development assistance. We are also a signatory of three international anti-corruption treaties: The United Nations Convention against Corruption, The Inter-American Convention against Corruption, and The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. In 2017, Canada also joined the Lima Group in order to address the crisis in Venezuela. Canada is committed to resolving the social and economic issues created by corruption. As stated by Marie-Claude Bibeau, the Minister of International Development, we believe that the “cost of corruption goes far beyond any bribe paid, law violated or money stolen: it diverts money from public services like education and health, destroys one’s trust in public institutions and enables criminal enterprises” and “wish to reduce the scope and far-reaching impact of corruption in Africa and the Americas.”

    To some extent, corruption is present in every country. It is the duty of the Special Political committee to protect the rights threatened by corrupted governments in Latin America. We encourage that Latin American countries institute anti-corruption legislation that enforces the criminalization of bribery and money laundering. To avoid conflicts of interest, we believe that neutral task forces and peacekeeping missions should keep these countries in check so as to let their democracies strengthen. Safety of the press and of whistleblowers is also crucial if we wish to make governments more transparent and trustworthy. Thus, establishing protections so that citizens can speak out against corruption without fear of retaliation is of the utmost importance. We emphasize the importance of aiding Latin American countries and helping them to carefully implement well-structured bureaucracies that are able to police themselves. Corruption restricts freedom, hinders economy, regresses human rights, and limits the power of justice; however, through thorough and deliberate action by the global community, it can be curbed.

  • Joey_bennett
    Joey_bennett November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: Democratic Republic of Congo
    Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Topic: Corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Joey Bennett
    School: Williamston High School

    Throughout Latin American countries you see corruption. The average departmental corruption rate in some countries can range from 11% to 55%. As members of SPECPOL, it is our job to combat corruption and dishonesty in Latin America. We see corruption everywhere from the smallest local governments to the largest national organizations, inside tax collection agencies, the police, and military forces, the natural resource production agencies. As the delegates of SPECPOL, we all need to pitch in and find a resolution before it is too late to fix the corruption in Latin America.
    The DRC knows very well what corruption can do to any economy. A sweeping majority of the population believes the police and military forces are corrupt. The Congo has tried to combat corruption in these agencies by removing the leaders who support this practice. Inside the tax agencies, there is an astronomically high rate of bribery when big businesses meet tax officials. The natural resource department lacks the transparency needed to conduct a clean and honest business, this makes it particularly easy to get away with shady and dishonest practices. The Congo has a ranking of 102 in the world on the GDP scale. with a GDP of 37.2 billion dollars. There are two million kids in Congo on the verge of starvation. This is what corruption can do to an economy.
    The Democratic Republic of the Congo wholeheartedly believes in a solution to solve these problems. The DRC does not wish the state of their country on any other nation, this is why the Congolese government would like to suggest two solutions to this committee, one solution the Congo would like to propose to the committee is the countries should implement laws like the Congo’s legal anti-corruption framework. This will criminalize most forms of corruption by public officials, including abuse of office. This will be successful with a rigorous enforcement Another solution to the Democratic Republic of the Congo would like to propose is a mechanism to audit, monitor, and evaluate local and state governments. This will create a checks and balances system for the governments of Latin America.

  • Tprankprakma
    Tprankprakma November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
    Tananya Prankprakma
    Political corruption is a serious problem all around the world, though such corruption is especially prominent in Latin America. Brazil’s current president, Michel Temer, has been accused of receiving money from a meatpacking firm, JBS. This firm is already a part of another corruption scandal and though these accusations have not been proven, they are most likely true. This is only a tiny sample of the corruption that infests Latin American politics. The corruption ranges from vote-buying in Peru to the Honduran government, which is being investigated on almost every level. Although political corruption is rampant in Latin America, Venezuela remains relatively untouched by it. Venezuela is very much against corruption in politics and will do what is needed to stop it.

    Corruption can be found in many place within politics but is mostly found in three places: government officials, voting processes, and drug trades. These three are not mutually exclusive and are often intertwined with each other. Political corruption is a very broad topic and specifically targeting these three things, while not a complete solution, will reduce the corruption in Latin America to a manageable amount. Venezuela has signed and ratified the UN Convention on Corruption which is the only legally binding universal anti-corruption instrument. Venezuela is not currently directly helping corrupt countries because that is something that more developed and stable countries should be doing. Historically, traditional methods have not worked against corruption in Latin American politics, so it is not reasonable to ask developing countries in Latin America to solve these complex issues.

    Venezuela is concerned by the increasingly right-wing governments present in Latin America and the possibility that they could lead to corrupt autocracies. Venezuela would look favorably upon resolutions that work toward the goal of getting corrupt officials out of governments and making sure that voting processes are fair. While political corruption in Latin America is a uniquely difficult problem to handle, there is no doubt that a solution will be found.

  • Jackschafer1
    Jackschafer1 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: The People’s Republic of Bangladesh
    Committee: SPECPOL
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Jack Schafer

    As the delegate from Bangladesh, we believe that political corruption in any nation is bad so clearly political corruption in Latin America is not supported by the Nation of Bangladesh. Political corruption plagues many nations in Latin America like Brazil and Panama to name a few, stopping this is important because every person of these nations deserve a fair chance at supporting the candidate they support and a fair chance for freedom. Some of these corrupt governments inhibit the support of their competitors and regulate the freedom of their citizens.
    The Nation of Bangladesh would support any actions toward the removal of any corruption of any nation’s government. We will back any other countries in their efforts against political corruption in not only Latin America but any nation on this earth. We know that combating political corruption can be a breach of national sovereignty but political corruption cannot go unheeded in any nation.
    Furthermore, Bangladesh will be supporting and drafting a resolution that would contribute to solving political corruption in reasonable ways and will help draft one of our own views that contain Bangladesh’s plans to end political corruption in Latin America. We will try to create a resolution that is cost effective and returns right to the people of the Nations that have fallen into political corruption while impeding on nations national sovereignty as little as possible. I hope that we can work together and get a lot done over the weekend.

  • Z3nski
    Z3nski November 14, 2018 Reply

    DATE: NOVEMBER 13, 2018
    SUBMITTED TO: SPECPOL
    FROM: ETHIOPIA
    SUBJECT: POLITICAL CORRUPTION IN LATIN AMERICA

    Corruption seems to get the best of our countries no matter our places in this world. Rich or poor, north or south, developed or developing. The impacts foster organized criminal activity, violence, drugs,
    and crime that only serves to turn a life of political stability into complete chaos. It also erodes the relationship of the rulers and the ruled which means laws on paper are rendered completely useless. But when we adjust the scope to Latin America, we see a cry of help and for us to take action.
    Latin American corruption in a historical context can be traced back to the Spanish mercantilism at the end of the 15th century to the 19th century where systems of society endorsed loyalty over political and economic rights. This bred autonomous legal norms which only led to birth of corruption in the region. The lack of firm laws and conflict continued up to this point today and can be still seen in many Latin American countries. Therefore, it is time to for us to undo what history has done to the region.
    The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia believes that in order for corruption to be reduced to minimal value, we need to take a multilateral approach with multiple actions to stifle corruption at its root. Ethiopia believes that there are main determinants of corruption that dictate the effect it has on countries especially itself. A poorly functioning legal and judiciary system that arises from inadequate capacity and laws. An overly controlling bureaucracy which puts enforcement over accountability. A poorly paid civil service and finally, a weak system of financial and budgetary controls that comes from inadequately trained staff.
    Ethiopia has dealt with corruption for decades and still fights it today. After ratifying the United Nations Convention against Corruption on November 26. 2007, the convention became an integral part of the constitution of Ethiopia and has expanded the countries capabilities on combating corruption. We have implemented strong programs and legislation such as the Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC) the Ethiopian Federal Police, and Proclamation No.883/2015 and No. 881/2015. In addition to this we have ratified the African Union Convention on preventing and combating corruption which sets guidelines for many African nations to strengthen their mechanisms on preventing, detecting, and punishing corruption. This has put us on the right track of dealing with corruption. The World Bank Anti-Corruption Report explains that, “corruption in Ethiopia does not approach the levels obtained in other Sub-Saharan countries.” As such we do believe that a continued effort against the cause will yield positive impacts on all people, not just our own. That’s why we gladly extend our hand in helping our neighbors in rooting out this plague.
    An effective resolution will tackle the legal and enforcement aspect. With better enforcement of anti-corruption laws this will drive the incentive of corruption down. Of course, we are open on different perspectives and look forward to working and collaborating with other countries on coming up with a multilateral solution. The positive impacts to be reaped from this are tremendous in Ethiopia’s and Africa’s efforts in anti-corruption. The pouring of illegal drugs and weapons from Latin America into Africa will finally be put on the chopping block once corruption has been addressed.

  • Asantos
    Asantos November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Delegation of Poland
    Annika Santos

    People don’t like laws. As children, we don’t want to be told what to do. We run around and act crazy and are disappointed when told by our parents to stop. However, without those rules and limitations from our parents, we would never grow up to become a civil person. We need some laws in place in order to live a life with others; otherwise, everything would go to chaos. This rule applies to government as well. Government is a necessary evil to keep all people in order. Then how is it that we can live peacefully when the government itself is not in order? Multiple Latin American countries are experiencing these chaotic events. To give one example, Venezuela’s previous president: Hugo Chavez came into office in 1998. He came with promises of ridding the nation of poverty, social exclusion, and corruption. Ironically, by joining office he brought corruption to the government. He attempted to rewrite the constitution in his favor allowing him unlimited opportunities for reelection. This is just one example of political corruption in Latin America; similar events occur in countries such as Guatemala, Brazil, and Argentina.
    The delegation of Poland recognizes these faults in the governments and leaders of Latin American countries. It is not only corruption the UN has to deal with, but also its effects. Poland’s UN ambassador stated “corruption is not just an internal problem within a country. It undermines the ability of armed security forces to stand up against terrorists, enabling terrorists to gain access to funding. It is the cause of many conflicts, a threat to international peace and security, and an obstacle to peacebuilding…”
    According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Poland is ranked 60. (The higher a country’s number, the less corruption; the scale is from 0-100.) As a country with little corruption, we are willing to assist other countries whose citizens are not getting proper representation. Poland has already taken international effort toward this issue by—not just signing but also—ratifying the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC). This treaty goes hand in hand with the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) as corruption usually leads to a larger amount of organized crime.
    It is the United Nation’s duty to ensure peace around the world. Corruption leads to the exact opposite of that; the UN should take action against this immediately. By lowering crime rates and creating a stronger hold on organized crime, we can prevent the effects of corruption until we get to the core of the problem. Poland believes funding is also responsible for a large part of the issue. Joanna Wronecka spoke, “ Urging greater application of financial pressure, she called upon donors to stop financing if Governments fail to prevent corruption…” With all these points, we can create a resolution to secure a corrupt-free Latin America.

  • Claireverb
    Claireverb November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    The Kingdom of Thailand
    Claire Michiko Verbrugge

    Since Western colonization began to spread across Latin American countries, they have dealt with the instability of their governments. The rise of violent crime and drug trafficking coincide with the growth of corruption in these countries. Corruption tends to flourish in poor countries; low salaries and low literacy rates of public employees are a common cause. In recent years, El Salvador’s president Mauricio Funes has been tried for corruption and money laundering. In Brazil, Former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva went to jail for corruption charges; nevertheless, he was still a front-runner in the 2018 elections. Scandals such as Lava Jato have exposed corruption in the highest echelons of government and in Brazils largest corporations. Autocratic states also tend to have widespread and more severe forms of corruption compared to democracies and monarchies. Despite the geographical distance between Latin American Countries and Thailand, relations between us are continuing to positively progress.

    Since 1950, over 27,000 Thai military and police personnel, men and women, have proudly served in more than 20 UN peacekeeping and related missions. Wherever Thai peacekeepers go, they simultaneously seek to keep peace and foster sustainable development or to engage in both peace-keeping and peace-building. As of 2003, Thailand became a signature to the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC). The UNCAC calls to state parties of the treaty to implement anti-corruption measures that focus on main areas of law enforcement, prevention, and international cooperation. In 1999, the National Anti-Corruption Committee (NACC) was founded. Established in Thailand, the constitutional organization’s main focus is to combat corruption by high-ranking government officials and politicians. Thailand has worked effectively to combat corruption and will continue to be a valuable contributor to United Nations Peacekeeping.

    Development cannot be sustainable without peace. Thailand suggests that countries with financial stability should aid Latin American countries through peacekeeping missions. Moreover, Thailand urges an improvement in education systems to improve communities. Thailand hopes that this issue will be dealt with sincerity and end without causing disruption and conflict between countries. We must work together to develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions. Thailand proposes to increase moral sufficiency and provide aid from stabilized countries.

  • Lochuno
    Lochuno November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: Brazil
    Committee: SPECPOL
    School: Williamston High School
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Lochlyn Reed

    The Special Political Committee (SPECPOL) has had a stronger hand when dealing with politically corrupt governments, and in terms of political corruption, Latin America is a region plagued with numerous issues. In Latin America as a whole, political corruption has been indisputably tied to various workers’ party leaders and their constituents. Venezuela and Bolivia are led by men who do very little to hide their life term aspirations. Presidents of Argentina and Ecuador left office only with extreme reluctance. Increasing crime rates in large cities are prompting citizens to favor more heavy-handed government responses, as right minded citizens should. Furthermore, Latin America’s corruption has eroded citizens confidence in their own governments, and thus undercut the foundation of countries whose citizens were once willing to work for a self sufficient, harmonious, and transparent government, effectively removing all social stability and economic viability.
    For years, the Brazilian population too has been subject to a corrupted government’s politics. Under the socialist regimes, which have ruled over Brazil for over a decade and a half, the Brazilian population has been suffering. As it currently stands, more than half the country’s senators and one-third of it’s lawmakers in the lower House are being investigated for corruption relating to the carwash scandal, involving business leaders and multinational corporations in allegations ranging from bribery and money laundering to attempting to distort the democratic process, with more than 150 people arrested, prosecuted or facing criminal proceedings. Being an epicenter for Latin American corruption, Brazil is no stranger to the issue in any capacity.
    What Brazil has already done about this issue nationally is rather simple. We have removed the offenders from power and in turn voted for a more strong fisted, authoritative president, which can be the only remedy to such corruption. Those who offended are being held accountable for their actions, and Jair Bolsonaro is quite capable of purveying such justice. That being said, as other countries also struggle with this issue, like Venezuela, we as Brazil know it is dangerous to become involved in another nation’s ongoings. Furthermore, the UN has no place using its power to change the governing of a country most of its members know very little about, and therefore no delegate should not speak for any country but his or her own. The UN itself only brings harm globally by attempting to influence specific countries, upsetting the political balance and landscape. Therefore, Brazil wishes to pass no resolution of any sort, and certainly not one that does not directly involve taking socialists out of power.

  • MoncmanUAE
    MoncmanUAE November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Special Political
    Topic Area: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Country: United Arab Emirates
    Delegate: Anthony Moncman
    Political corruption in Latin America has plagued the region for much time, and has increased significantly in recent years. In countries such as Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama, this has been a very significant problem. Key factors leading to this corruption includes but is not limited to drug cartels, bribery, violence, lack of transparency, and incompetent leaders. Many such scandals are not one time affairs as they are embedded into the government with several key figures involved from the government being influenced in different ways. The citizens in these countries have a severe lack of trust in their government as a result of these elements. Many programs to increase transparency in the government of countries in Latin America have come short of fueling a true flame for change in the region; however some programs aimed to make the governments more transparent have been effective to an extent. Such as in Guatemala an UN-backed program referred to as the CICIG has accomplished considerably much in the fight to heighten transparency, resulting in lowering corruption in the country. As an independent source, it is non-biased and provides honest reports on the government in Guatemala.
    The United Arab Emirates does everything in its power and policies to aid the countries affected by this plague of corruption. While the UAE’s policies prevent it from taking a direct role in the reform of these governments, it does offer a series of relief programs and aid to those in need in countries that are negatively impacted by natural disasters, war, and political mishaps. The UAE donates large sums of money to be used through many programs, one of which the World Bank. This can be used to help fund programs to increase transparency and lower corruption in Latin America. The UAE has a very low corruption rate compared to these countries and encourages that they use a similar method of keeping corruption rates low.
    The Special Political Committee has the responsibility to ensure that governments have as little political corruption as possible. The United Arab Emirates encourages the use of third party to review government conduct and increase transparency in Latin America. This will aid in the reduction of corruption in this area, and will help restore trust in the government by the citizens of the countries. There should also be programs in place to help restrict drug cartels from influencing the government, as well as other sources of bribery that has been going on for years in the region. The region of Latin America should be observed carefully by these independent entities, funded by NGO’s. Latin American countries should also reduce organized crime including but not limited to drug cartels and other large scale crime syndicates. In doing so, bribery and political corruption would be reduced by a plethora.

  • AmandaMorello
    AmandaMorello November 14, 2018 Reply

    November 12, 2018
    SUBMITTED TO: Special Political
    FROM: Syrian Arab Republic
    SUBJECT: Political Corruption in Latin America
    DELEGATE: Amanda Morello (Royal Oak High School)

    The conflict regarding governance in Latin America has been a major point of international discussion. Although these nation states are structured with the pillars of democracy, their transparency is up for debate. While supporters of democracy argue the components of such ideas are essential to sufficient government, their opponents will point out that widespread criminality, rampant laundering and an overwhelming lack of security have embroiled Latin America in an extensive corruption battle.

    Syria is in a position of turmoil, surrounded by governments who are defensive in response to Western imperialism. Syria believes the growing problem in Latin America mirrors that of the Middle East. Corruption causes that can be traced to the West include failing economies, powerful private entities, factions, weakening governments, organized crime and drug trade. Specifically, corruption common in Syria is focused in the private sector of the economy. Bribery, embezzlement of funds, and the abuse of leadership positions are included in this problem. Corruption undermines the very integrity of legitimate policy and economic development by distorting the public market and dismantling religious morality.

    Syria recognizes that corruption impacts the stability of a nation’s government. Thus, Syria endorses the reformation of institutions of the private sector to narrow opportunities for immoral behavior. Such an approach would include collective recognition among employers and employees of proper and lawful action. Syria also sees great value in religious awareness, reaffirming basic morals and reiterating foundational values. Furthermore, Syria recognizes that foreign influence in Latin America is the fundamental factor in widespread corruption. The lack of repercussions for the actions of colonial powers has paved the way for despotism, corruption, and violence.

    Although the topic of corruption is multidimensional, this committee must not focus on the condemnation of a form of government, rather it must center its attention on transparent mechanisms for all. Many member states of the developing world have had to confront corruption in the private sector. In committee, a nonpartisan resolution that explores mechanisms to implement transparency will be most practical in exploring and implementing applicable solutions. Syria would like to remind the global community that an issue of this size, in no part, involves “education” for civilians. Rather, nations at the root of the problem must face the consequences of their actions.

    Syria is hesitant to adopt a resolution knowing that it may be used to justify foreign intervention. Despite this, Syria recognizes the value of instating proactive measures to respond to widespread corruption. If this committee is to fully address the extreme issue of political corruption in Latin America, the resolution must achieve three things. First, and most imperative to this resolution’s credibility, is that it must recognize the fundamental factor in such devastating corruption. Secondly, this committee must contribute ideas that are representative of the diversity in the room. It is abundantly clear to Syria that the perpetrators of this issue are the democratic nations thus democratic ideals are not the way to approach it. Lastly, this resolution must include measures to combat corruption private sector. As seen in Brazil and countless other nations, corruption stems from those not tied down by a government.

    Syria looks forwards to working with all nations on a comprehensive resolution.

  • Luisv.
    Luisv. November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political corruption in Latin America
    Mexico
    Luis F. Vazquez

    For many years political corruption has affected the democratic governments of Latin America. Through the great work of the United Nations there has been many actions deployed to overcome the political corruption that is evident in all countries. For example the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has addressed global political corruption with the Global Anti-Corruption Initiative (GAIN) which “ focuses on strengthening systems, institutions and civic engagement to combat corruption and to better manage and deliver public resources.” In addition the United Nations convention against corruption (UNCAC) was taken in by the United nations General Assembly and entered to action in December 2005. UNCAC is the first to legally bind governments in efforts to reduce corruption. 120 governments met in the southern Mexican city of Merida in December 2003, and although advancements in political corruption is hard to track we can turn our heads to realize the discovery of more political corruption events happening as an indicator to a better standard of stopping corruption. Mexico is aware of the corruption within its own borders and has placed measures to negate the levels of corruption.

    Pena Nieto’s administration, just one day after he assumed office he reached a political agreement and obtained signatures of the top leaders within the 3 main political parties for the “Pacto por Mexico”. The “Pacto por Mexico” creates a firm message through Mexico’s political structure that acknowledges political differences in an effort to enable congress to pass reforms to promote economic growth and democracy. It also reaches multiple agreement regarding economic growth, employment and competition; security and justice; transparency, accountability and most importantly anti-corruption. 20 months after the agreement 11 structural reforms, which required 58 constitutional changes, amendments to 81 laws, the creation of 21 new laws and the abolishment of 15 were made to achieve the efforts of the agreement.

    Mexico proposes the for the United Nations to punish those who indulge in political corruption. As Mexico has, by first hand, experienced political corruption within our political system it recognizes that there is still more to be done under the correct parameters. Mexico’s Pacto por Mexico has been a phenomenal advancement to reach lower rates of political corruption by acts of governmental reform. To further reduce the levels of political corruption the UN and should punish officials by forbidding anyone who is caught corroborating with acts counted to be political corruption from the ability to serve as any sense of a government position.

  • Spencer-B
    Spencer-B November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Republic of India
    Political Corruption in Latin America

    Political corruption in Latin American remains a dire topic that still plagues the region to this day. With the diversity of culture, economics, government, and language across the Americas, it is obvious that the wounds of colonialism would not be fully healed by the 21st century, and corruption is only an effect of this. Corruption throughout the region has spread far beyond government, impacting the private sector through bribes by multinational corporations and illicit drug and human trafficking by cartels. This culture of corruption has only encouraged more violence and distrust in the region, leading towards many global initiatives to target conflicts as they arise on a mainly short-term basis. India believes that in order to target this crisis in the most realistic of means, we must offer long-term solutions, resources, and curriculum to help willing nations alleviate their own domestic political corruption.

    Of course, the issue of political corruption is one that impacts the entire planet and India is no exception. However, as a strong and proud democratic government, India has been working diligently throughout the past decade to target its own corruption problems from within the highest and lowest levels of government. Among the top issues for Indian officials to target is illicit “black money” (untaxed and illegally obtained money) and bribery at all levels of government. These two concerns have greatly tormented our nation’s trust and progress, political bribery being an issue that directly relates to this topic.

    Luckily, India has developed a range of solutions that have worked to target these issues and others. We have begun a deliberate campaign of demonetization of some of our top currencies in order to draw black money out of the dark and back into the Indian economy. We have also been working to investigate “shell companies” that operate as illegitimate businesses for tax evasion and money laundering. Thankfully, we have also received the full support of our independent and motivated federal judiciary, which has fast-tracked corruption cases and is working tirelessly to hold those guilty accountable. Even more exemplary, India has made more recent efforts to create better transparency for our citizens and create a system of accountability within our government. We have enacted past legislation that has allowed for greater access to governmental information, a hallmark of this being the 2005 Right to Information Act, which guaranteed access to approved public information within 30 days. Along with this, India as a whole has been modernizing its governmental and societal infrastructure to be more advanced and more online. A great example of this is in the state of Gujarat, where state contract bids are fully online for greater transparency. This trend has continued in other states where banking systems are now directly accessible to poor citizens online, allowing the government to offer direct aid with no intermediaries. All of these and more are solutions that India wants the committee to develop and adapt to create a solid curriculum for nations wanting to alleviate political corruption.

    While these solutions and problems are India specific, their impact and similarities relate directly to that of corruption in Latin American. A close ally of India, Brazil, is a perfect example of how the world’s largest corruption operation can be exposed and destroyed through domestic action. After years of hidden bribery and deals in the top level of government responsibility, years of corruption was brought to light by the now infamous Operation Car Wash. What started off as a small investigation into possible money laundering, eventually led to a national investigation of Brazil’s state-run oil company Petrobras along with 80 other members of the political and business elite. The investigation is still ongoing and has led to thousands of search and seizure warrants along with the revelation of the world’s largest government corruption scandal involving billions of illicitly transferred money. Based on this harrowing story, a few qualities of successful extermination of corruption can be understood as essential for the committee’s planned curriculum. Firstly, a key factor of such an investigation is proper funding of an independent and unhindered investigative unit with the proper expertise and access. Secondly, the independence and swift action of Brazil’s judiciary was able to firmly reflect the accountability and trust that was needed in targeting this issue and the investigation’s aftermath. Thirdly, to many’s surprise, Operation Car Wash was able to expand across the continent of South America, revealing corruption in many countries and working to target corruption regionally. Lastly, a major component for why this behavior was able to continue was a lack of transparency in the financing of the operations and services conducted by Petrobras and other companies involved in the scandal. These core ideas reflect a philosophy that the committee must adhere to when advising Latin American nations. We as a committee must work to cultivate anti-corruption initiatives that keep in mind these core 4 ideas and work to develop other solutions that Latin American countries can implement. As a committee, we must find ways to support the region as a whole through assistance and possible funding into independent and country-driven investigations that may be initiated.

    Above all, while India deeply wishes to establish secure and corruption free democracies around the world, it would be a waste of resources, time, and labor if we try to force solutions on countries that do not wish to improve or offer too many resources that can easily be misused. Our shared global resources are limited, and we must use them sparingly to offer assistance to those who want it, not detest it or abuse it. Ultimately, the United Nations can act as a fantastic collective for assistance to Latin American nations, but true change must come from within Latin America and its people.

    India looks forward to the committee working as a collective whole. We have put our trust in the United Nations to bring out the best in nations and cultivate peace and unity across the planet, we hope that this same power can lead to less corruption across the world, specifically in Latin America. We plan on creating a steady curriculum and set of resources for Latin American countries to initiate if they wish. With full faith in our country and our committee, India knows that sensible progress will prevail.

  • Abbylawrence
    Abbylawrence November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption In Latin America
    Italy
    Abigail Lawrence

    Corruption in Latin America is on the rise, and governments are unable to stop it. According to Transparency International, seventeen of twenty countries whose populations were sampled had a majority saying that corruption had increased over the past twelve months. Twelve of those countries had a majority saying that the government was not effectively combating corruption. Although it is predicted that about a third of the total Latin American population has had to pay a bribe, few citizens actually report the corruption due to fear of retaliation. The effects of such pervasive corruption leave developing countries stuck in poverty and leave citizens distrustful of their government and police. As a country with a long history of corruption, Italy acknowledges the consequences of corruption and has partaken in multiple anti-corruption conferences through which Italy has been able to strengthen measures against it. Italy has expressed, through Enrico Costa during the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, that international discussion is necessary to spread anti-corruption strategies that encourage implementation and aid in combating corruption.

    Italy is a strong supporter of fighting political corruption which is demonstrated by the actions that Italy has taken to lessen, prevent, and oppose corruption within the country. Similar to Latin America, Italy has struggled with corruption, and it costs Italy almost 60 billion euros every year. Currently, Italy is introducing legislation to combat corruption by preventing convicted officials from being reelected and pursuing transparency of contributions. Both internationally and nationally, in 2009, Italy signed and ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Corruption (UNODC). This convention was implemented in accordance with the Constitution which states that international law overrides national law. In addition, Italy was a signatory for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Anti-Bribery Convention and, as of 2017, is working alongside an OECD working group to continue implementing anti-corruption legislation. Italy has also signed, ratified, and started legislation for the Council of Europe’s Civil and Criminal Law Conventions against Corruption. Nationally, Italy has enforced recommendations from the earlier organizations. In addition, extortion, bribery, fraud, and money laundering have been deemed punishable by law. Finally, the anti-corruption framework was strengthened to increase statute of limitations and protect whistleblowers, and, in 2018, a new “bribe destroyer” bill has been introduced to keep political figures who have been convicted of corruption from returning to politics for a period of time or even for life depending on the length of sentencing.

    Italy endorses actions recommended by international anti-corruption organizations like the United Nations Offices on Drugs and Corruption. For example, countries have become a part of the Conference of the State Parties (COSP) following the signing and ratification of the UNCAC. This creates access to working groups and initiatives that work with the country to implement the convention, recover any stolen assets, educate the populous of the consequences of corruption, fight corruption in sectors of the judiciary system, police, prisons, and customs, and provide resources for businesses. Although Italy is not financially able to support the costs of implementation in other countries given that it is experiencing one of the longest recessions in its history, it highly recommends joining the UNCAC. If a country is unwilling or unable to join the UNCAC, it is recommended that corruption be reduced in the police and judicial systems by enforcing greater accountability and transparency from the police in addition to making judges independent in order to prevent biased verdicts. In addition, whistleblower protection laws should be created and enforced alongside the opportunity to anonymously report any corruption in order to encourage citizens to share their experiences without fear of retaliation. Finally, no political immunity should be granted during cases related to corruption, and checks of power should be instilled to prevent one section of government from overruling the others.

  • avatar image
    Natalie Swartz November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Special Political
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Country: Guyana

    In history, most Latin America has been colonized by European countries, such as Spain, Portugal, or Great Britain. Since gaining freedom, much of Latin America has struggled with corruption of politics and police for the past few decades. With the increasing rate of corruption victims, specifically Bolivia, Venezuela, and Paraguay, laws must be created to protect citizens and lower political tensions in Latin America. The most corrupt people in Latin America are police and elected representatives. The Co-operative Republic of Guyana believes that steps should be taken to reduce political corruption.

    Guyana has taken steps to reduce corruption. In 2008, we ratified the United Nations Convention against Corruption. This legislation has reduced our rank on the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) from 124 to 108 in the past year. It has reduced corruption in Guyana, but allegations still remain. The UN has put several laws and legislations into action, working against corruption. The most impactful being the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Guyana, bordering Venezuela, is being attacked at border towns by people called sindicatos, violent gangs who have taken the border between these two countries. Venezuela is turning a blind eye at these groups, which is not unlikely, considering the government is ranked as the 169th most corrupt country. This political corruption directly affects Guyana, being our western neighbor.

    Guyana believes that steps should be taken to tighten laws around corruption. Like Brazil, we would want to start an anti-corruption drive to achieve lower rates of corruption in society. As a recently-created country, gaining independence from Great Britain, we would like to improve our country, of which starts with lowering corruption rates, not just in the police or politics, but throughout the Co-operative Republic of Guyana.

  • Cooperreit
    Cooperreit November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political
    Colombia
    Political Corruption in Latin America

    Political corruption affects all people no matter where you are in the world. Political corruption “the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain” is not anything someone wants to deal with, and to the community of the world political corruption sounds scary and should scare us. Latin America has some of the poorest countries in the world, including Bolivia whose poverty rate is 38.6% under the poverty line. Colombia’s corruption rate has had a steady incline through 2009 to present date and has no views of stopping. Though there have been votes for anti-corruption but none have went through and all have been shy on votes, the people of Colombia want to make change, but in no means is the world ready for change. Colombia’s corruption rates have been high, but we have taken steps to cut corruption. Colombia is working on overcoming these obstacles make a better political environment, but through our corruption right now nothing will be done unless the UN can work together to solve these situations. In no place is political corruption a good thing and will it ever be. Us delegates must find a way to bring this to a close, or this may never stop. Latin America has some of the worst corruption in the world, along with poverty, and as a delegate of Colombia we want and need to bring political corruption to a halt. I hope to work with all delegates to reach an outcome that fits our needs to stop Corruption through Latin America.

  • Mtomaszewski
    Mtomaszewski November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Islamic Republic of Pakistan
    Matthew Tomaszewski

    One of the reasons that economic growth and development is difficult in developing countries is due to High levels of political corruption. The world bank has identified it as a problem that leads to the undercutting of a country’s revenue especially through taxes, a reduction of foreign investment due to a lack of trust, and misrepresentation of the will of the people. A majority of the present day Latin American countries were once lands colonized by the west. After gaining their independence, they tended to fall under autocratic rule. Under the influence of such strong centralized power, it became easier for bribery and other forms of political corruption to take place due to lack of transparency and accountability. As a previously colonized area, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan understands some of the struggles undertaken by Latin America. Like the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, many countries in Latin America have transitioned to a democratic system of elected officials. However, political corruption can be difficult to root out when entangled in bureaucratic systems.

    As a ratifier of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan strongly stands against political corruption. Although previously Pakistan has been known for some corruption through the military, under the guidance of our prime minister, Imran Khan, we are currently working towards eliminating political corruption. Khan established the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf political party, of which one of the main goals is to combat political corruption. He has already pledged that he will auction off an abundance of over 80 vehicles owned by the prime minister’s office, leaving two for official use, and fire a majority of the staff at the office in order to cut government costs and simplify his office. Another avenue being taken to reduce political corruption is through a recent law instated that will reward whistleblowers for identifying the corrupt with a portion of the ill-gotten resources recovered.

    The Islamic Republic of Pakistan recommends that all Latin American countries make efforts towards transparency for both their own citizens and the international community. Further, it recommends that the United Nations attempts to assist developing countries in following the standards set up by the United Nations Convention against Corruption. Assistance from the United Nations will allow for the governments of developing countries to more easily root out the sources of the political corruption problems within their system. It is important that the members of the Special Political and Decolonization committee do not force developing countries to follow unwanted and unnecessary regulations and keep in mind the sovereignty of nations while assisting them in ending political corruption. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan therefore recommends that any resolution to combat political corruption in Latin America takes into account the sovereignty of the nations it attempts to effect.

  • DetroitFrancis
    DetroitFrancis November 14, 2018 Reply

    Country: The Republic of Chile
    Committee: Special Political Committee
    Topic of Question: Corruption in Latin America
    Delegate: Francis Allen

    Hello fellow delegates, the Republic of Chile is honored to be here and hopes to work both respectfully and cooperatively with you all. Chile recognizes the concerns regarding the issue at hand of the present countries. Even though it is difficult to find a solution that will please all of the countries present, the Republic of Chile is still optimistic for change that will point us toward a future without political corruption.

    Political corruption in Latin America is a long standing issue that has plagued the region for centuries. Transparency International’s definition of corruption is: “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain.” in 2004, Daniel Kaufmann (Global Governance Director of the World Bank Institute) wrote about the costs of corruption; one of Kaufman’s arguments is that “Countries suffering from corruption cannot implement sound redistributional policies and thus are not expected to take benefit from sustainable economic development.” Transparency International found the average departmental corruption rate in each country ranged from 11%-51%. To combat corruption, we must as a whole committee understand the forces that drive corruption; countries that consistently deal with corruption are often characterized by an unstable economy and government. The lack of transparency among corrupt governments needs to change. Many times, attempts that have been made to end corruption only led to further corruption; this is why it is necessary to implement development programs that ensure guided and stable aid that will end corruption in Latin America.
    In the past, the United Nations has taken action against corruption in Latin America by establishing the OECD-Latin America and Caribbean Anti-Corruption Initiative in 2007. The initiative built off of the 1996 Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, the United Nations Convention against Corruption, and the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. The initiative aims to raise awareness for corruption in the region, in addition to comparing experiences, sharing best practices, and discussing challenges in the fight against corruption.

    In considering the future of this conflict, the Republic of Chile believes that this committee must take immediate action regarding the issues at hand. First, it is necessary that we condemn corruption in all forms in both the public and private sector. Second, we must put in place programs that work toward eradicating the sources of corruption such as political and economic instability. Chile also calls upon this committee to find solutions to the rising occurence of illegal activities that accompany corruption, like drug trafficking and cartels. Lastly, Chile believes that there must be a system that monitors corruption and identifies where and when it is developing.

  • Petersage
    Petersage November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Republic of Korea
    Peter Sage

    The presence of political corruption in Latin America has proven to be a serious issue deeply rooted in many of the region’s governing bodies that prompts intervention from international authority. With political leaders accepting bribes and operating with a lack of transparency, the region’s people live without fair governing. The interest of political leaders is easily shifted from the well-being of their people, to the success of the highest paying party willing to hand over a bribe. This has lead to the development and success of large criminal organizations including cartels that drug traffic for profit, and have murdered a severe number of people for interfering. Many Latin American states have shifted from autocratic governments to democratic governments within the past two centuries, but this has not stopped political corruption from rooting itself within governing bodies. The Republic of Korea maintains that Latin American political corruption is an issue that cannot be solved via only local authority, that international assistance is required.

    Unfortunately, the Republic of Korea has a strong history of political corruption at a high level. Several former presidents have been tried and convicted for bribery, abuse of power, and treason. Park Geun-hye, who was president from 2013 to 2017, has been sentenced to 24 years in prison for her corrupt action as leader. Current president, Moon Jae-in renounces the country’s past of corrupt leaders, and has worked to solve issues of political corruption. The Republic of Korea recognizes the issue of political corruption as one that affects a state’s citizens negatively and directly. Since punishing corrupt leaders for their actions and electing a president that has worked to reduce corruption, a number of issues related to the past corruption have dissolved. The Republic of Korea believes that the dissolution of corruption among governing bodies in Latin America is impertinent to the well-being of its people.

    The Republic of Korea suggests that individuals in power for whom there is sound evidence of corrupt activity be removed from their positions and punished accordingly. The Republic of Korea took this first step domestically in 2017, and has seen improvement regarding corruption in its government already. By safely removing corrupt officials from their positions, the consequences of those leaders’ corrupt actions are stopped at their roots. As new individuals are elected in countries where corrupt leaders have been removed, transparency about operation must be required of the new leaders. The Republic of Korea supports resolution that entails the removal of corrupt politicians and a higher standard of transparency regarding the operation of government officials.

  • avatar image
    Paul Janes November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Sweden
    Paul Janes

    Corruption is a problem any government has to be wary of. In Sweden preventing corruption is a point of emphasis when making new laws. This can be shown by Sweden being ranked the 6th least corrupt country in the world. However that isn’t the same for South American countries, with many of them being some of the most corrupt countries in the world. Sweden frowns upon the governments for allowing corruption to the extent that these South American countries have. Specifically Venezuela, Nicaragua, and Guatemala, which according to the 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index are 169th, 151st, and 143rd respectably.
    However those 3 countries aren’t the only ones who have been plagued with corruption, which is why this topic is so important. Sweden thinks that this topic is extremely important as it not only affects the governments, but as a result it affects the people living in those countries. Because of this Sweden urges the committee to find a solution that isn’t tailored to specific countries, but a solution that all member nations could implement if there was suspected corruption.
    This could be achieved through a multitude of methods, however it is imperative that all countries agree on the method. In addition it is important that a 3rd party investigates the corruption within suspected countries, but only if that country agrees to the investigation.
    Sweden is looking forward to see what ideas other countries present to the committee, and is hoping that the committee as a whole can agree on a solution to stop corruption.

  • Vandhen
    Vandhen November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Egypt
    Henry VanderZyden

    Throughout the entire world, the problem with corruption continues to rise. Not only in Latin American countries, but African countries like Egypt as well, problems with corrupt governments arise daily just like the sun. Several major corporations have a hard time sustaining business in Egypt, due to the government giving in to bribery and embezzlement. Not to mention, the illegal tampering of official documents and especially extortion. Also, the government has a major problem of picking favorites amongst the businesses across the nation which has had undeniable negative effects on the Egyptian economy and government as a whole.
    One possible explanation for this problem is the problem of having very poor legal framework which causes the businesses to use “middle men” to help keep their business’ about. Also noteworthy, there is an abundance of corruption in the law enforcement agencies and police officers throughout Egypt. This is illustrated when they pick favorites, just like the government, which screws over many corporations.
    They also have corruption in their judicial branch, arguably the most important branch of government in Egypt. With the lack of structure and framework in their country, people become less and less satisfied with their government and continue to lose trust in them. Over a quarter of all businesses in Egypt agree that this type of corruption is a major problem, which is a step in the right direction. However, just under 75% of the corporations do not see a problem with the judiciary branch and its framework.
    For these reasons, we believe that corruption is a problem not only in Latin AMerican countries, but across the world

  • Ctkrug
    Ctkrug November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Country: Indonesia

    Political Corruption is an issues that plagues many nations. It is hard to hire the right people every time, most people would take a quick buck to look the other way. Indonesia has been struggling with this fact and sees corruption in its government. Indonesia belies that it makes no sense why this committee can’t be directed towards political corruption globally as Indonesia would love to hear opinions on the matter; nevertheless, the topic only talks about the widespread corruption in Latin America. Indonesia would like to see a recommitment from the United Nations to help worn out and dispose if corruption where’er the corruption may be. A resolution to help all effects rather than the small sect of Latin American countries.

  • Amohney095
    Amohney095 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Alexis J. Mohney, Mattawan High School
    Turkey
    SPECPOL: Political Corruption in Latin America

    Corruption happens in politics across the globe; although, Latin America has the highest rate of political corruption than any other area in the world. People stated turning an eye when the Petrobras scandal was made public in 2014. Brazil was practically throwing money at their largest oil company and at higher up politicians. By the time citizens confronted the corruption, five billion dollars had already been lost. While money is being stolen by rich politicians, areas in Latin America are running out of water and have a declining economy.
    Turkey’s relationship with Latin America has always been friendly;however, due to the geographic of both areas, the relationship has become stagnant. Turkey would like to strengthen the relationship between the two countries. It would make political and economic benefits if both countries create a stronger alliance. The trade agreement was first established in 2006, a free trade agreement was extremely helpful for both countries. Turkey has a declining and unstable economy because of terrorists and all the money being funded towards protecting citizens. Their money also goes towards helping all the refugees from Syria; therefore, a stronger trade agreement would help Turkey’s economy. A stronger trade agreement would also benefit Latin America because of the poverty and block political corruption.
    Turkey also provides aid to the Latin American to combat political corruption and help their economy. They created the organization called TIKA, Turkey cooperation and coordination agency. The whole mission of Turkey is to provide aid for anyone who is in need of assistance globally, we as a country would like to show kindness is important for repairing the world. TIKA has given aid to Africa, Middle East, and Latin America to help with natural disasters and genocide. Turkey wants to protect the innocents and hope that other countries will follow in the footsteps.
    To repair relationships, the president of Turkey will continue to send aid to Latin America and visit accordingly. All that Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the president, asks of other countries and that they continue aid programs to Latin America to combat corruption. The relationships between the two areas begin to grow daily, but we need other countries to take the time to provide need.
    Turkey is willing to help other countries combat political destruction as long as the relationships between Turkey and Latin America is not ruined. Turkey as a country only ask to make more of an effort to help the innocents and take in account for their lives when deciding to go to war.

  • 07581
    07581 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Japan
    Dylan Haywood
    The Japanese delegation believes that the corruption in Latin America while a situation not pertaining to the nation of Japan directly, is found to be deeply troubling and believes that a non violent, but sturn solution would be best solution to this complex situation. The delegation of Japan, while not worried for it’s overall safety, realizes that the safety of the sizable Japanese population in Latin America must be safe-guarded and protected under regimes that allow political corruption run rampant. The nation of Japan has made sizeable foreign investments in Latin America, therefore, our nation would like to secure these economic interests for not only the Japanese, but for the citizens of Latin America, to ensure prosperity for both of our futures.
    However, the delegation of Japan is deeply worried with the overall economic stability for Latin America, due to Japan’s role as Latin America’s second largest trade partner. The nation of Japan believes that through the liberalization of society as it has seen itself, political corruption and general governmental injustices should wane. The nation of Japan has overcome political corruption before, and it is in high confidence that we will be able to solve such problems in Latin America. We wish for the people and businesses of Latin America to take heart in the fact that as a once corrupt nation, Japan has risen above political corruption and gained international prosperity. We sincerely wish to, by the best of our abilities, help bring the same prosperity to Latin America and strengthen our trade relations to the benefit of all.

  • DevinSmith
    DevinSmith November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political corruption in Latin America
    Commonwealth of Australia
    Devin Smith
    City High School

    Latin America, one of the most politically corrupt places in the world. Why is it this corrupt? You can link most of the political corruption to the certain areas in history. It was colonized by the west, which led to the centralization of power. Because of this, once the country became a free country it tended to have a dictatorship leader structure, which some think might have led to the corruption issue in Latin America. Right now the largest type of corruption is bribery. One of the most widely known cases of corruption is the Lava Jato (car wash) or the Petrolão because the petroleum companies were involved in it. The operation has already moved more than 13.2 billion AUD. Involved in this operation were many politicians, some notable ones being Dilma Rousseff and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

    The Commonwealth of Australia recognizes this as a major issue, so we have tasked the Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SpecPol) to help sort out this issue. Australia has been known for taking strong action to prevent and expose corruption globally, regionally and domestically. Australia is involved in G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, APEC Anti-Corruption, and Transparency Working Group, and the United Nations Convention against Corruption Working Groups.

    In order to fight the political corruption in Latin America, first you have to understand that corruption cannot be completely avoided. In the end, you can only prevent the majority of it but you can never completely stop it. The steps to stopping the corruption are as follows: Step 1: Constitutional safeguards. This can be accomplished by using a system such as Australia’s constitutional democracy. This system uses a series of checks and balances, and separation of powers. Step 2: Accountability and Transparency. This is the concept that no single person/ body is responsible for corruption. Step 3: Criminalization of corruption. This would cover a wide array of corruption-related offenses. These include things such as bribery, nepotism, and embezzlement. And finally, Step 4: Using International Cooperation and Technical Assistance. Corruption spans across all seven continents, it has no borders or country loyalties. In order to fight corruption it cannot be done by one isolated country, it must be a team effort. If you implement some or all of these things, we think we can stop the corruption in Latin America.

  • Samdeperno
    Samdeperno November 14, 2018 Reply

    Samantha R. DePerno, Mattawan High School
    Iran
    SPECPOL: Political Corruption in Latin America

    Latin America has been known for its political corruption the past years, mostly due to corrupt political leaders, or corrupt government systems, but most citizens and people outside Latin America see that their systems are flawed, but the government and the leaders won’t admit to it because they caused the corruption in their countries. How has this corruption been spreading through Latin America? It’s like an infection and it needs to be cured, or it will spiral into something much more dangerous. This political corruption is already very dangerous for the citizens of Latin America and they are afraid.This is a serious issue because it can affect the other countries stable governments and their decisions in foreign affairs, so the SpecPol committee needs to assess this issue and take actions to correct the problem.
    Can this be stopped at this point? I don’t think that can be determined just yet. I do know that there have been many countries with corrupt leaders, especially Iran. On February 3, 2013, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad played a video tape in the Iranian parliament that tied the heads of two branches of the government, the legislative and judiciary, to a documented financial corruption case related to the Larijani brothers. Iran’s score on the Corruption Perceptions Index (measures corruption on a scale of 0-100, 0 being very corrupt, 100 being not corrupt) is 29. El Salvador is 36, Guatemala is 28, Honduras is 30, Mexico is 30 Nicaragua is 26, so Latin American countries have very high corruption rates, mostly caused by drug trafficking and organized crimes. As a result of the concentration of drug trafficking, Latin America and the Caribbean has the world’s highest crime rates, with murder reaching 32.6 per 100,000 of population in 2008 and 43 of the 50 deadliest urban areas in the world are in Latin America. So Latin America is incredibly dangerous now and it needs to be taken care of.
    Iran recommends thorough and detailed investigations to uncover the serious ongoing political corruptions in the countries of Latin America. This is a serious matter that can be very dangerous if it spins out of control, and it may take time to fix what the problems in these countries, but eventually we hope for more economic stability and less organized crime and drug cartels in Latin America.

  • Soroben
    Soroben November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Cuba
    Ben Sorota

    Political corruption in Latin America has been a long lasting problem both socially, economically, and politically. Corruption comes from the combination of excessive government power and insufficient intra-government competition. The first puts government officials in charge of too many people’s lives and livelihoods. The second insures that bribery and lucrative conflicts of interest take place without accountability. Overlaying the entire system is a political culture, resulting from decades of dictatorship, that permits officials to steal without a pang of conscience, and convinces private citizens that redress is impossible (Lynch). The imperialistic motivations of other countries led to the corruption of the Latin American governments, an example of this is in Cuba when the United States used dollar diplomacy and big stick policies to ensure that they would have access to cheap goods.

    The country of Cuba has dealt with many forms of political corruption in the past and present. Through many points in our history the citizens of Cuba have had to execute corrupt acts. Between 1959 and October 2011, citizens were not allowed to buy and sell private homes. Through a complicated and sometimes corrupt system of ownership, residents were permitted to trade homes or to pass homes on to their children (Hill). In 1944, Batista permitted Grau San Martín. to take office. The eight years of rule by Grau and his ally, Carlos Prío Socarrâs, were ineffective and corrupt.

    The government of Cuba is in favor of the corruption in Latin America as it gives them more wealth, power, and control. However, the citizens have been impacted negatively. In order to create more opportunities while still keeping centralized power in the government, Cuba should lower tariffs, and focus on industrializing the country. By lowering tariffs and opening trading with other countries, the countries economic opportunities will greatly increase. By focusing on industrializing the country more, citizens of cuba will have access to better jobs that have higher wages.

  • Srmehari
    Srmehari November 14, 2018 Reply

    Committee: Special Political and Decolonization
    Topic: Political Corruption in Latin America
    Country: Republic of Croatia
    Delegate: Sara Mehari, FH Northern HS

    Corruption in Latin America is nothing new and, in recent years, has been on the rise. Bribes of the government, police, and private sector and the threat of international drug cartels loom over Latin American countries.

    As a member of the European Union, Croatia has taken many steps to prevent political corruption. Croatian State Prosecutor’s Office for the Suppression of Organized Crime and Corruption or Bureau for Combating Corruption and Organized Crime (USKOK) underwent revisions to increase their ability to fight corruption. Since 2008, USKOK has prosecuted 2,000 individuals, including corrupt former prime minister Ivo Sanader who accepted bribes. These efforts have brought Croatia’s conviction rate to 95% and have decreased corruption within the country.

    Corruption is an issue that affects many countries. Governments in Latin America and around the world should strengthen the corruption-fighting institutions within their nations and police investigative capacity. Citizens should also have a clear, safe opportunity to report corruption they witness. Croatia believes these are reasonable efforts all countries can achieve and hopes this committee comes to the same conclusion.

  • CyberLynx07
    CyberLynx07 November 14, 2018 Reply

    William Lacey, Mattawan High School
    Guatemala
    SPECPOL: Political Corruption in Latin America
    The rampant corruption in South America perpetuates the instability in those nations, leading to further corruption. This cycle has proven near-impossible to stop so far, with the heads of many of the South American nations involved refusing to cooperate with efforts from the outside world to stop the corruption. Corruption is so ingrained in the political systems of many of the South American nations, removing it may well require removal of nearly entire political systems, turning them inside-out and restarting from scratch, potentially crippling the nation’s politics for years to come, assuming it is even allowed to happen. And thus lies the problem; removing corruption requires the help and cooperation of the leaders of nations, yet many of those leaders are corrupt themselves.
    Guatemala’s people support anti-corruption movements and organizations, hoping for a safer environment and more fair and just government. The UN established the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala, or CICIG, to combat corruption in Guatemala, which seemed like it might solve the problem for Guatemala. However, this organization was recently removed by the Guatemalan president Jimmy Morales, claiming it was “violating our laws, inducing people and institutions to participate in acts of corruption and impunity” and, “selective criminal prosecution with an ideological bias” (The New York Times). Though President Morales is suspected of receiving one million dollars of “undeclared contributions” during his campaign in 2015, Guatemala is a Democracy, and the overall attitude of many of the government officials is for anti-corruption. The was great backlash to President Morales’ decision to not renew CICIG, showing that the nation as a whole would support anti-corruption policy, and would most likely go over Morales’ head if need be.
    Judging on President Morales’ reasoning for his decision regarding the CICIG, any new anti-corruption organization would need to follow Guatemalan laws and beliefs exactly, leaving no room for excuses for its removal. The motion to create another organization like CICIG in Guatemala would therefore need to be reviewed and edited by the Guatemalan government, most notably by President Morales himself. Before it was removed, CICIG managed to catch several high profile people, leaving only a few corrupt members in high-end society in Guatemala. Therefore, the focus should be more on preventing future corruption from happening than on catching people who are already corrupt.

  • Maggiemurphy104
    Maggiemurphy104 November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Uganda
    Maggie Murphy

    Many countries in South and Central America have been plagued by the United Kingdom and Spain for decades, and even centuries, on end. The two countries attempt to colonize the smaller nations and leave them in political and economic turmoil. Uganda has been one of the many countries that has faced the terror from the UK and has seen the turmoil and despair first handedly.
    México, Venezuela, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Brazil, and Bolivia are among the many nations that have faced the wrath of the UK and Spain.
    Uganda recognizes the hardship of political corruption and has faced it as well, as previously mentioned. Political corruption is not something that is easy to deal with: the lack of trust citizens begin to have with their government and the public uneasiness. In 2009, the Anti-Corruption Act was passed by the Ugandan government; criminalizing bribery, influence peddling, among many other offenses. The government also passed the Whistleblowers Protection Act of 2010 and the Anti-Money Laundering Bill, which became a law in 2013. Uganda’s high court also opened an Anti-Corruption Division in 2009. Despite all of this, the country does not provide any protection to those investigating corruptions and those who are accused of corruption tend to be exempt from investigations.
    Uganda recommends that the UN implements programs that only allow people to rise to power, or run for power, unless they have publicly declared their true intentions. Uganda further urges the UN to train future politicians and staffers of said politicians and.

  • avatar image
    Ethan Bonnell November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    United States
    Ethan Bonnell — Forest Hills Northern

    Political corruption has long been a staple of politics in Latin America. Drug cartels run rampant and bribery charges are thrown back and forth as leaders accept money for whatever they want regardless of the law. The Corruption Perception Indices for Latin American countries are among the worst in the world, which is unusual considering the relatively advanced status of their markets. Fundamentally political corruption challenges one of the foremost ideas of democracy, the idea of political participation. Political parties have been denied a place on the ballot, people have been stopped from voting, and political opponents have been jailed or killed for their beliefs. These kinds of corruption allows for inefficiencies in both the public and private sector to continue despite their numerous flaws.
    The United States has historically kept close relations with Latin America and has served as a guiding force in times of need. With corruption running rampant, it is no different now.
    The United States will continue to provide aid and resources to those that need to combat corruption but would urge foreign powers to not interfere with these matters without the consent of the United States. Furthermore, the United States would like to emphasize that no amount of money could help these states as providing monetary funds would likely increase the state of corruption even further without proper oversight, oversight that likely the UN would be unable to provide.
    It is the place of this committee first and foremost to review current UN missions in Latin America including most importantly the United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti to determine the efficacy of these missions and make sure that the sovereignty of these states and of the region is being protected while political freedom is being promoted. Outside of that, the most important thing for Latin America the UN can do overall is work in any way possible to strengthen the institutions of democracy. The committee should promote ideas of an independent judiciary and of a free market, allowing for more free competition and maintaining a more fair court system. Already Latin America has begun to implement legislative limits on the executive branch, leading to a crackdown on corruption. The United States would also like to recommend that states with high rates of corruption seek the services of the United Nations, most prominently electoral assistance to make sure the voices of the citizens of Latin America are heard. The UN should also collaborate with NGOs to work to solve surface level problems in Latin America, such as high crime rates and poor living conditions, which are exacerbated by corruption in these states.

  • Aurorabarkman
    Aurorabarkman November 14, 2018 Reply

    Vietnam – Aurora Barkman
    Royal Oak High School
    Special Political – Topic A: Political Corruption in Latin America

    Vietnam is all too familiar with the detrimental effects of governmental corruption on the economy, the welfare and safety of the people. In order to combat this, Vietnam has created a campaign over the past several years that seeks to eliminate the deep-rooted governmental corruption that has become rampant within our nation. We are currently in the throes of a war against the malfeasance that has occurred in alarming amounts among our countries public officials; we actively pursue the disposal of practices such as grafting and facilitation payments that continue to pollute our state. Therefore, we are in great support of the effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate corruption in Latin America.

    Recently we have launched several internal investigations that resulted in the arrest of many of the politicians responsible for large scale embezzlement, fraud, and other criminal acts pertaining to the illegal use of government funds. We believe in order to fight corruption in Latin America or otherwise, an evaluation must be done from the top down. Nations must form internal committees with the intent to review the government’s central politicians and eliminate any internal corruption that plagues the ruling party. This must be done before any investigation into the many bureaucratic and governmental sects that suffer from the same quandaries.

    Furthermore, increasing judicial independence will be paramount in the fight against corruption in Latin America. The process for choosing the attorney general and top judicial authorities should be reviewed and reformed in order to remove the corrupt special interest influences. Reviewing the top prosecutors of the South American nations will succeed in helping to restore the ability of a country to provide consistent and justifiable consequences for those accused of committing crimes against the government. This process will also help to hinder the powerful growing influence of drug cartels, an issue that is a root cause of the corruption in the Latin American region.

    Another way we can begin to eliminate some corruption from Latin America is by making state campaigns and public contracting transparent. Most political campaign contributions are not reported in nations such as Mexico, and the bidding processes and use of public funds is private information. Making this information known will eliminate a lot of the illegal business practices that run rampant in the administrations of Latin American nations by making it impossible for enterprises to take money from special interests in secret.

    Vietnam will offer the aid we can as we take action to reduce corruption in Latin America, for the good of the economy and the nation’s people. We intend to fully cooperate with all countries willing to offer progressive and implementable political solutions to improve our great world.

  • NualaR
    NualaR November 14, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    South Africa
    Nuala Richards

    The concentration of power and autocracy left over from the periods of European colonization, have left Latin America with a corruption crisis. In modern times this has translated to organized crime and other similar abuses of power. Often corruption is allowed to continue because of weak institutions that fail to punish offenders. Additionally, discretionary use of power and monopolistic positions make corruption possible and opportune for officials.

    Like many countries in Latin America, South Africa has had a long history with colonization and corruption with it as well as with following governments. The most famous feature of this in South Africa being the Apartheid, where a white minority created a system of institutionalized racism to oppress Blacks and Asian South Africans. Under such dictatorial rule, the truth was purposely withheld from the public. The nature of this domination necessitates a select few to be above the law to maintain the system, and as often the case those above the law routinely abuse this power for personal benefit. The Apartheid was overthrown by several economic factors, including undocumented funding, as well as bureaucratic continuities which have translated to modern corruption. Recently President Zuma was found guilty of corruption, where he used state money for personal items and provided favorable legislation in return for funds.

    South Africa actually has a well-developed framework for checking corruption, especially within the region. However, inadequate enforcement has allowed corruption to thrive, with some officials linked to corrupt activities to escaping repercussions. Nearly half of South Africans believe that most or all of the government officials are corrupt. The PCCA criminalizes corruption, makes use in court easier, and obligates public officials to report corruption. Similarly, Promotion of Access to Information Act will protect whistleblowers, however, it has yet to be fully implemented. We understand the importance of information, which is why the latter Act is key to disassembling corrupt systems. Globally South Africa has ratified the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption as well as the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. The resolutions made have been incorporated into efforts to actively confront corruption.

    South Africa recommends greater transparency to promote the reporting of corruption and avoid concentration of power. This would impede on officials ability to secretly take bribes or commit fraud. A new framework of laws should be established to not only criminalize corruption but to encourage reporting of it. Connecting with that idea, we also suggest involvement in global or regional organizations to build general direction to anti-corruption movements, which would prove especially relevant in Latin America to bring all the countries into synchronism. It is paramount that any legislation in place be enforced and fully implemented to reap any results.

  • JoshuaOsgood
    JoshuaOsgood November 14, 2018 Reply

    Iraq
    SPECPOL
    Political Corruption in Latin America

    Iraq recognizes that the unfortunate circumstance Latin America finds itself is in part both caused by corruption and a major cause of corruption. Income inequality, lack of land ownership, lack of accountability, and racial and ethnic divides all feed corruption, which in turn further entrenches these conditions. It is not uncommon that funds for impoverished are stolen, the corrupt misuse their power to shield themselves, and income inequality worsens. Unfortunately, persons living in such conditions are often pushed to crime, as it appears to be the only vehicle to further themselves. Growing drug crime has led to centralization of crime, e.g. cartels, and organized crime also futhers corruption. These and many other vicious cycles seem endless, all feeding corruption.

    However, Iraq wishes to stress that all Nations should remember that no nation has ever been free of corruption. Some members of the UN have been able to root out corruption from their government with large investments time and resources. Iraq is trying to join in their ranks, yet until recently, the threat of Daesh and other insurgents forced us to focus on defeating such militias. Now that Daesh has been driven out of Iraq by our forces and our allies, we have started to rebuild, strengthening state institutions, increasing participation in government, and unifying all Iraqis in hope of creating a more inclusive and responsive nation. The process will be long and costly, requiring much economic and infrastructural development combined with a refinement of bureaucracy, but we believe that Iraq will rise stronger and more unified than before. However, to assure Iraq’s to success in this endeavor, we require the funds promised at the Kuwait Conference. Iraq also believes that Latin America will also requires development funding to see just democracy rise.

    Iraq calls on the UN and all other member nations to unite in providing developmental aid to Latin America. Increased infrastructure results in increased communication, which in turn increases accountability. Refining bureaucracy and reinforcing or rebuilding state institutions helps reduce government corruption. Improved public services in conjunction with economic development helps lift whole populations out of poverty, resulting in reduced incentive to partake in organized crime. Any of these developments can have a positive effect on corruption, but all are needed to steer a nation towards just democracy, and all require funding. Iraq is concerned by the calls for sanctions by members of this committee against Latin American nations, and even more so by calls to “overthrow corrupt governments.” Iraq’s history shows the consequences of such an action. A government is far easier to repair than to rebuild. And while Iraq acknowledges the concern that funding could be diverted into the pockets of corrupt officials we wish to root out. However far more significantly, Iraq believes that economic sanctions will only exacerbate the issues we are attempting to resolve. The most efficient route to a corruption-free Latin America is support, not punishment. We hope the nations of this committee will join us in supporting this approach to address Latin American Political corruption.

  • avatar image
    Liam Gakodi November 15, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Germany
    Liam Gakodi
    Latin America is filled to the brim with corruption for many years and is only just recently taking action against this. In the history of Latin America, eastern countries have colonized and settled in it through imperialism. When the time came for these countries to regain their freedom and break away from these countries, autocracies started to flourish across Latin America. The delegation of Germany is familiar with corruption and because of which is trying to end corruption throughout Latin America.
    Latin America’s corruption stems from organized crime units like drug cartels utilizing the advantageous opportunity that lies within the weak government of Latin America. As a result, a rise of violent crime, drug trafficking and other illegal activities have stirred in these countries. Protests against these policies have broken out in retaliation against these corrupt leaders and politicians, but it hasn’t called enough attention to the issue.
    A company called Odebrecht is a fine example of the level of corruption in Latin America. This company has bribed countries ranging from Brazil to Ecuador in political campaigns and boosted the careers of politicians to gain building contracts. This level of corruption has crept all the way up to the vice president of Ecuador, Jorge Glas, who took $13.5 million dollars worth of bribes from Odebrecht.
    Germany is an economically stable, big country with even bigger policies on laws of corruption. We are among the top enforcers of anti-corruption legislation and we’ll do everything within reason to stop this monumental issue. We must be tough on these corrupt countries in order to eradicate all their corrupt policies and leaders. A violation of the national sovereignty of bribed nations is necessary to infiltrate and eliminate all levels of corruption and create a resolution that will embody our interest.

  • CyanPile
    CyanPile November 15, 2018 Reply

    Special Political and Decolonization Committee
    Political Corruption in Latin America
    Republic of the Union of Myanmar
    Sam Shepich

    The world currently faces a political climate in which nations are fraught with political corruption. Large corporations influence everything from local government to the chief executive. The infestation of such corruption threatens the integrity of democracy, especially in Latin America. The obvious action of legislation preventing corruption in
    government has failed, to no surprise. As the influence pervades throughout all levels of government, any attempt to really change the climate is immediately squashed by those at higher levels. For example, Jimmy Morales, the Guatemalan president, has threatened to dismantle the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG). Although the CICIG has proven effective in shutting down corruption, it cannot stand against the president in any considerable magnitude.

    Myanmar has dealt with such corruption before especially in the days dominated by monarchies and military dictatorships. As recently as 2007, there was unrest due to the wealth disparity between the people and the kleptocratic military. However, a semi-civilian government took power in 2011. However, there is still a ways to go with the institution of a free market. The Central Bank has implemented controls in accordance with the IMF’s Anti-Money Laundering/Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) guidelines.Additionally, the institution of an Anti-Corruption Law, Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB), and Transparency in Myanmar Enterprise (TIME) allows for the identification and eradication of corruption.

    Myanmar firmly believes that the blockage of funding from both the U.N. and NGOs, such as the National Whistleblower Center, would incentivize nations to stamp out corruption. Furthermore, contribution to nation’s needs may also drive the governments to reduce corruption. The creation of a subcommittee that directly deals with this topic would prove beneficial in further proceedings.

Leave a reply